casa-10k_20171231.htm

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-38324

 

Casa Systems, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

75-3108867

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

100 Old River Road

Andover, Massachusetts

01810

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (978) 688-6706

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value per share

Nasdaq Global Select Market

(Title of each class)

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files). YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer

(Do not check if a small reporting company)

Small reporting company 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    YES     NO 

As of June 30, 2017, the last day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, there was no public market for the Registrant’s Common Stock. The Registrant’s Common Stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 15, 2017. The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of Common Stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on February 28, 2018 was $398.7 million.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of February 28, 2018 was 81,580,281.

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

4

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

15

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

39

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

39

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

39

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

39

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity
Securities

 

40

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

42

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

45

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

67

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

69

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

105

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

106

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

106

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

107

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

109

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

119

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

121

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

124

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

126

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

128

 

 

 

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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements  

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “might,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “would,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Some of the key factors that could cause actual results to differ from our expectations include:

 

our ability to anticipate technological shifts;

 

our ability to generate positive returns on our research and development;

 

changes in the rate of broadband service providers’ deployment of, and investment in, ultra-broadband network capabilities;

 

the lack of predictability of revenue due to lengthy sales cycles and the volatility in capital expenditure budgets of broadband service providers;

 

our ability to maintain and expand gross profit and net income;

 

the sufficiency of our cash resources and needs for additional financing;

 

our ability to further penetrate our existing customer base and obtain new customers;

 

changes in our pricing policies, whether initiated by us or as a result of competition;

 

the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operation and expansion of our business;

 

the actual or rumored timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or customers;

 

our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;

 

insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;

 

our inability to fulfill our customers’ orders due to supply chain delays, access to key commodities or technologies or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;

 

future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;

 

stock-based compensation expense;

 

the cost and possible outcomes of any potential litigation matters;

 

our overall effective tax rate, including impacts caused by the relative proportion of foreign to U.S. income, the amount and timing of certain employee stock-based compensation transactions, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and any new legislation or regulatory developments;

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increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

 

general economic conditions, both domestically and in foreign markets;

 

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products; and

 

our use of proceeds from our initial public offering.

Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

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PART I

Item 1. Business.

Our Vision

Our products help our customers provide and manage broadband connectivity. We believe consumers and enterprises should be able to enjoy ultra-fast speeds and enhanced digital content experiences through their phones, tablets, computers, TVs and other connected devices at home or on the go. We believe that connectivity should be ubiquitous and seamless; it should not matter whether the user is accessing the Internet through wireless or fixed connections, and it should not matter whether that service is being provided by a cable operator, fixed telecom carrier or wireless services provider. Our innovative, software-centric products are designed to help achieve this vision.

Overview

We offer solutions for next-generation centralized, distributed and virtualized architectures for cable broadband, fixed-line broadband and wireless networks. Our innovative solutions enable customers to cost-effectively and dynamically increase network speed, add bandwidth capacity and new services for consumers and enterprises, reduce network complexity and reduce operating and capital expenditures. Our solutions include a suite of software-centric infrastructure solutions that allow cable service providers to deliver voice, video and data services over a single platform at multi-gigabit speeds.

We focus our development efforts on innovation and being the first to market with new products at each generational shift in network technology. For example, we pioneered the use of a software-centric approach to leverage the programmability of field programmable gate arrays, or FPGAs, and general purpose processors for use in the cable industry. In addition, we believe we were the first to provide each of the following to our customers: a solution enabling cable service providers to deliver Internet Protocol, or IP, voice, digital video and data over a single port; a solution enabling cable service providers to deliver multi-gigabit speeds to their subscribers; and a remote node solution to enable distributed broadband cable access at gigabit speeds.

We have created a software-centric, multi-service portfolio that enables a broad range of core and access network functions for fixed and wireless networks. These networks share a common set of core and access network functions that enable network services such as subscriber management, session management, transport security and radio frequency, or RF, management. Our Axyom software architecture allows each of these network functions to be provided and controlled by a distinct segment of software, which can be integrated or combined together in a building block-style fashion with the segments of software responsible for each other network function. This allows us to offer network architectures that can be efficiently tailored to meet each customer’s specific requirements, both as they exist at the time of initial implementation and as they evolve over time. While we initially focused on providing solutions for cable service providers due to our founders’ experience in the cable industry, the commonalities between fixed and wireless network architectures have allowed us to expand our solutions into the wireless market as cable service providers have increasingly sought to add wireless capabilities to their service offerings.

We offer a scalable solution that can meet the evolving bandwidth needs of our customers and their subscribers. Our first installation in a service provider’s network frequently involves deploying our broadband products in only a portion of the provider’s network and with only a fraction of the capacity of our products enabled at the time of initial installation. Over time, our customers have generally expanded the use of our solutions to other areas of their networks to increase network capacity. Capacity expansions are accomplished either by deploying additional systems or line cards, or by our remote enablement of additional channels through the use of software. Sales of additional line cards and software-based capacity expansions generate higher gross margins than our initial hardware-based deployments.

Our solutions are commercially deployed in over 75 countries by more than 450 customers, including regional service providers as well as some of the world’s largest Tier 1 broadband service providers, serving millions of subscribers. Our principal customers include Charter/Time Warner Cable, Rogers and Mediacom in North America; Televisa/IZZI Mexico, Megacable Mexico and Claro Telmex Colombia in Latin America; Liberty Global, Vodafone and DNA Oyj in Europe; and Jupiter Communications and Beijing Gehua CATV Networks in Asia-Pacific.

We have achieved significant growth in revenue and profitability. Our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was $351.6 million, $316.1 million, $272.5 million and $211.3 million, respectively, representing a compound annual growth rate of 18%. Our net income for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was $88.5 million, $88.7 million, $67.9 million and $59.7 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, our total assets were $469.7 million, $583.0 million and $283.1 million, respectively.

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Industry Background and Broadband Service Provider Challenges

As broadband service providers look to address the rapidly evolving demands of consumers and enterprises, we believe they must address several key challenges.

Rapidly Increasing Bandwidth Demand

Bandwidth demand has grown substantially and is expected to continue to increase. Key drivers of this increased demand include:

 

more users with more connected devices and applications;

 

more time spent online by users;

 

the increased use of bandwidth-intensive streaming media services, such as Amazon Prime Video, Netflix and YouTube; cloud applications, such as iCloud and Dropbox; and augmented and virtual reality applications;

 

Internet of Things, or IoT, solutions, as already seen in connected homes, business and industries; connected devices such as Amazon Alexa or Google Assistant; machine-to-machine connectivity; car connectivity and smart cities;

 

the backhaul demand by wireless service providers; and

 

the rise of data consumption by enterprises with strict latency requirements on mission-critical and public safety-related applications.

According to a June 2017 Cisco Systems Visual Networking Index report, global IP traffic per month is forecasted to grow from 96 exabytes in 2016 (1 exabyte = 1,000,000,000 GB) to 278 exabytes in 2021, representing a 24% compound annual growth rate in global IP traffic; global IP traffic per capita is expected to increase from 13GB in 2016 to 35GB in 2021; and the number of connected devices is forecast to be three times the global population by 2021.

Competition Fueled by Increasing Breadth of Service Offerings

Consumers and enterprises enjoy increased choice among broadband service providers, including cable service providers such as Charter and Comcast, diversified telecommunications companies such as AT&T and Verizon, and mobile-only network operators such as Sprint and T-Mobile. As a result, broadband service providers are facing increasing pressure to develop differentiated service offerings with higher levels of performance at lower cost to consumers and enterprises. They are also under competitive pressure to offer a wider range of services, from Internet access, television, telephone and wireless services to additional services such as voice over Wi-Fi, video calling and, in general, smart Internet and security-related services. Moreover, the increasing popularity of over-the-top services puts additional pressure on the traditional video business of broadband service providers. In this new environment, fixed service providers have deployed fiber and Wi-Fi networks and have been exploring ways to provide mobile service offerings.

Increasing Network Complexity

Historically, broadband service providers have deployed separate systems within their fixed broadband networks for video and data services and have operated separate networks for fixed, Wi-Fi and mobile services. This traditional model requires service providers to maintain separate network infrastructure and personnel for each service. As network capacity and coverage have increased, and the diversity of service offerings has grown, the lack of interoperability of these separate networks has resulted in increasing network complexity and inefficient parallel network infrastructure.

Need to Control Operating and Capital Expenditures

The operation of network infrastructure is space, power and personnel intensive. In addition, the lack of interoperability between networks means that broadband service providers cannot optimize bandwidth usage by allocating traffic from networks experiencing high demand to those experiencing low demand, which can result in unused capacity and an unsatisfactory user experience.

Hardware-centric networks can also be expensive to update or replace. With frequent technology shifts and introductions of new service offerings, competition in the broadband industry is constantly changing. To remain competitive, service providers are regularly required to incur significant capital expenditures to upgrade existing equipment.

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Opportunity to Transform Broadband Networks

Given the challenges they face, broadband service providers are undertaking three key technology initiatives to help build next-generation networks.

Densification

Increasing demand for bandwidth and user expectations for ubiquitous and seamless connectivity require, among other things, the addition of more end points for users to access broadband networks, also known as network densification. Consequently, broadband service providers are shifting from centralized to more distributed architectures. Densification requires extending network connectivity and distributing access aggregation solutions closer to end users. This results in the deployment of additional hardware, such as access aggregation nodes, small cells and related gateways.

Network Convergence

Many traditional service providers have historically either operated just one network type or operated fixed and wireless networks as separate businesses. However, more and more service providers that may have started out providing just fixed or wireless services are recognizing the benefits, especially those associated with quality of experience, of being able to provide both services to their subscribers. For example, cable service providers in the United States have formed a joint consortium, Cable WiFi, that provides Wi-Fi access to broadband cable subscribers at over 500,000 access points. Continued acquisition activity, such as Altice’s acquisitions of Cablevision and SuddenLink and Vodafone’s acquisition of Kabel Deutschland, has accelerated fixed and wireless convergence. This consolidation trend has caused a heightened focus on the economics of maintaining two networks. Broadband service providers are seeking to integrate their separate delivery modes with all-IP architectures, shared transport and a common suite of software-centric core and access network functions.

Virtualization

Service providers are rethinking traditional network architectures and moving toward more software-driven architectures. The use of software permits a fundamental change in the way broadband service providers deliver critical network functions. Software-enabled architectures that are decoupled from underlying hardware allow for increased efficiencies, upgradability, configuration flexibility, service agility and scalability not feasible with hardware-centric approaches.

Our Solutions

We offer solutions for fixed and wireless networks. Our software-centric, multi-service broadband platform, Axyom, enables ultra-broadband delivery and convergence.

We engineered our platform from the ground-up to be high performance, flexible and adaptable, and to allow our customers to seamlessly address the growing demand for bandwidth and connectivity and competitive need for service agility. Axyom also enables our customers to efficiently manage their networks and provide their subscribers with additional services.

Our software-centric broadband platform provides the following key benefits to broadband service providers:

Addition of Critical Bandwidth Capacity

Our solutions enable broadband service providers to offer multi-gigabit speeds to meet the growing demand for bandwidth. Our platform permits software-centric expansion of network capacity to enable rapid bandwidth and service provisioning, helping broadband service providers to respond flexibly to increased customer demands.

Flexibility to Add New and Expand Existing Services

Our platform provides us with the flexibility to adapt to changing industry standards and customer needs. We designed our Axyom software platform using what we refer to as Network Function Virtualization 2.0, or NFV 2.0, principles, which allow us to provide and control each needed network function through a distinct segment of software, which can be integrated or combined together in a building block-style fashion with the segments of software responsible for each other network function. This allows us to offer network architectures that can be efficiently tailored to meet each customer’s specific

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requirements, both as they exist at the time of initial implementation and as they evolve over time. When possible, we also seek to implement new features and enhanced customization through the use of FPGAs, which can be reprogrammed in the field as service needs evolve. This software-centric approach enables our customers, in turn, to commercialize new features faster than they could with hardware-centric solutions. For example, our solutions enable broadband service providers to efficiently add new services and features, such as wholesale connectivity services for wireless service providers, enterprise-class connectivity services and interactive communication services, such as voice over Wi-Fi and video calling.

Ability to Upgrade Networks Remotely

Our programmable architecture allows us to deploy technology updates to our customers remotely without the expense, disruption or network downtime caused by hardware replacements or field visits by personnel, while minimizing network downtime. Similarly, we can remotely turn on additional features or capacity in order to scale our solutions to meet the needs of our customers as they look to broaden the use and capabilities of our products. Similarly, we are often able to troubleshoot and assist our customers with technical issues through seamless software updates.

Reduced Network Complexity, Operating Costs and Capital Expenditures

Our converged software platform allows broadband service providers to significantly reduce the complexity and costs of their networks by reducing parallel and otherwise redundant network architecture. The large capacity increases that our solutions enable, and the ability of our solutions to deliver voice, video and data over a single platform, mean fewer pieces of equipment in the network, and lower energy usage, operating costs and capital expenditures. For example, our solutions permit our customers to transition from Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, or DOCSIS, 3.0 to DOCSIS 3.1 with less network downtime and fewer hardware replacements that result in lower costs than those of our competitors.

Ability to Densify Networks

Our products help broadband service providers deploy more capacity at the network edge, closer to where end users and devices are accessing the network, thereby increasing available bandwidth and reducing latency to improve quality of service. For example, our solutions allow cable service providers to take advantage of new technologies and standards such as distributed access architectures, including passive optical networking, or PON, architectures, allowing cable service providers to move fiber closer to the network edge.

Common Platform Capabilities to Address the Needs of Both Fixed and Wireless Networks

Our software-centric, multi-service platform enables a broad range of network services for fixed and wireless networks, allowing for the delivery of diverse consumer and enterprise applications. Both fixed and wireless networks share a common set of core and access network functions that enable network services, such as subscriber management, session management, transport security, access aggregation and RF management. Our Axyom software architecture allows each of these network functions to be provided and controlled by a distinct segment of software, which can be integrated or combined together in a building block-style fashion with the segments of software responsible for each other network function. This allows us to offer network architectures that can be efficiently tailored to meet each customer’s specific requirements, both as they exist at the time of initial implementation and as they evolve over time.

Our Competitive Strengths

The following competitive strengths have helped us become a market leader:

Highly Flexible, Software-Centric Architecture

We have designed our product portfolio from the ground-up to be software-centric and modular in nature. Our proprietary software is at the heart of our products.  Our software-centric architecture allows us to virtualize core network and access functions allowing these functions to be decoupled from underlying hardware, which is not feasible with hardware-centric approaches. As a result, our software-centric architecture allows for increased efficiencies, upgradability, configuration flexibility, service agility and scalability while increasing the potential service life of the underlying hardware. Our software allows us to leverage the programmability of FPGAs and general purpose processors in our solutions.

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Proven Engineering and Product Development Track Record

We have a proven history of anticipating network evolutions and developing solutions that enable next-generation networks. Our forward-looking design and investment approach, coupled with our proven product development track record, has enabled us to deliver fully featured next-generation solutions in advance of competitors. For example, we believe we were:

 

first to market (2005) with a software-centric cable solution leveraging the programmability of FPGAs and general purpose processors;

 

first to market (2008) with a commercially deployed, fully qualified DOCSIS 3.0 cable modem termination system, or CMTS;

 

first to market (2012) with a commercially deployed converged cable access platform, or CCAP, delivering IP voice, digital video and data over a single port;

 

first to market (2015) with commercially deployed DOCSIS 3.1-compliant solutions supporting speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second; and

 

first to market (2016) with a commercially deployable remote-PHY solution.

Strong Management and Engineering Team with a Culture of Innovation

We pride ourselves on our culture of innovation, which is driven by our management team of experienced executives and engineers with deep industry expertise. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 86% of our employees were engineers or had other technical backgrounds. With our talented and passionate engineering-led organization, we aim to be an industry visionary and are committed to delivering products based on next-generation technology before our competitors do. By providing customers with direct access to our engineers for product feedback and assistance, we believe our engineering expertise contributes to an enhanced customer experience.

Customer Focus

We have a passion to serve our customers and the agility and flexibility to offer solutions to meet their evolving requirements. Our sales, sales engineering, development and support teams work directly with customers to design, develop and implement new solutions and to resolve customer problems, even if another provider is the root cause of the problem. Our product development roadmap is based on our vision for the future but heavily influenced by near-term and mid-term customer requirements. This market insight helps us meet customer demands and achieve faster time to market with new features.

Diversified and Established Customer Base

Our solutions are commercially deployed in more than 75 countries by more than 450 customers, including regional service providers as well as some of the largest Tier 1 broadband service providers, serving millions of subscribers. According to S&P Global Intelligence, our market share by channels shipped in the CCAP and CMTS market grew from 6% in 2012 to 21% in 2014 to 27% in 2016. Our wireless solutions have been purchased by several customers, including Tier 1 mobile operators such as Sprint and China Mobile, and we are in negotiations with several broadband service providers for the purchase of our wireless solutions. In addition, our wireless solutions are currently in over 30 trials with over 25 prospective customers.

Market Opportunity

We believe that the shift to software-centric ultra-broadband networks and fixed and wireless convergence presents us with a compelling market opportunity. Because fixed and wireless networks share a common set of core and access network functions, our platform is capable of addressing the needs of both fixed and wireless networks.

Our current CCAP solution addresses the service delivery needs of cable service providers. As fixed and wireless networks continue to converge, we believe there is an opportunity for us to take advantage of this fundamental shift. Although we currently generate the majority of our revenue from the fixed broadband CCAP market, we expect to generate increased revenue in the future from sales of both wireless and PON solutions to new and existing customers. Our current wireless products consist of small cells, Wi-Fi and related gateways as well as evolved packet core products. Our small cells and related products enable wireless access, routing and traffic management functions to support the delivery of a number of

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services to end users. Our evolved packet core products enable subscriber and session management, security and data exchange between the core wireless network and wireless subscribers. Our PON solutions enable cable service providers to push fiber closer to the network edge while leveraging their existing network assets and existing industry-standard protocols.

According to S&P Global Market Intelligence, the CCAP market (including both centralized and distributed solutions) is projected to grow from $2.0 billion in 2017 to $2.7 billion in 2021, representing a 6% compound annual growth rate. This market currently accounts for the majority of our revenue.

 

In addition, we believe the global market for our small cell, evolved packet core and PON solutions will grow from $7.2 billion in 2017 to $16.0 billion 2021, representing a 22% compound annual growth rate.  Our small cell-related solutions have been purchased by several customers, including Tier 1 mobile operators, and our small cell-related solutions, components of our evolved packet core application and our PON solutions are currently in trials with numerous prospective customers.

Our Growth Strategy

The key elements of our growth strategy are:

Continue to Innovate and Extend Technology Leadership Through R&D Investment

We believe that we offer market-leading broadband infrastructure products today. We intend to continue to enhance our existing products and develop new products in both our current and adjacent markets. For example, we have invested in and launched distributed access architecture solutions to allow our cable customers to densify their networks, providing higher bandwidth, which enhances user experience.

Further Penetrate Existing Customers

Our customers often deploy our products in a specific region or for a specific application, which may only account for a portion of their overall network infrastructure needs. We plan to expand our footprint within the networks of existing customers as they realize the technological and financial benefits of our solutions. Our software-centric approach, which is embedded in our products already deployed in our customers’ networks, allows those customers to expand network capacity to address increasing bandwidth demand and serve additional users through software.

Expand Our Customer Base

We intend to continue to invest in our sales and marketing organization to increase awareness of our products and services and expand our customer base. We believe our focus on hiring, training and retaining a knowledgeable and technical sales team helps us build better relationships with customers. We added approximately 40 customers in 2017.

Expand the Breadth of Solutions Sold to Customers

We intend to sell additional products and solutions to our growing installed base of broadband service providers. We have invested in developing a virtualized platform that allows us to rapidly provide new applications and services to our customers.

Leverage Our Core Technology for the Cable Industry into Adjacent Wireless Markets

While we initially focused on providing solutions for cable service providers due to our founders’ experience in the cable industry, the commonalities between fixed and wireless network architectures have allowed us to expand our solutions into the wireless market as cable service providers have increasingly sought to add wireless capabilities to their service offerings. Our wireless solutions have been purchased by several customers, including Tier 1 mobile operators such as Sprint and China Mobile, and we are in negotiations with several broadband service providers for the purchase of our wireless solutions. In addition, our wireless solutions are currently in over 30 trials with over 25 prospective customers.

Invest in Our Platform through Selective Acquisitions

We may selectively pursue acquisitions that enhance our existing platform capabilities and are consistent with our overall growth strategy.

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Products and Technology

We offer physical and virtual network solutions that enable our customers to provide fixed and wireless broadband services to consumers and enterprises.

 

 

Axyom Software Platform

Our Axyom software platform is central to our multi-service, ultra-broadband delivery architecture, integrating multiple core and access network functions. Axyom is 5G-ready and is designed to provide high performance, programmability, scalability and flexibility. We designed Axyom using NFV 2.0 principles, which allow us to provide and control each needed network function through a distinct segment of software, which can be integrated or combined together in a building block-style fashion with the segments of software responsible for each other network function. This allows us to offer network architectures that can be efficiently tailored to meet each customer’s specific requirements, both as they exist at the time of initial implementation and as they evolve over time. Axyom has predominantly been integrated into our physical products to date and is increasingly being deployed in virtual environments.

Our Axyom software platform performs several critical network services:

 

Subscriber Management. Enables dynamic management of subscriber authentication, provisioning, policy enforcement and allocation of network resources based on specific end-user service requirements to enhance quality of service

 

Session Management. Intelligently manages application layer data streams to enable service creation and delivery and enhance quality of service

 

RF Management. Efficiently manages RF signal generation (modulation/demodulation) while reducing noise to increase available RF spectrum and maximize data throughput over the network link in both fixed and wireless applications

 

Access Aggregation. Manages and combines high volume data streams, regardless of connection type, including fixed broadband, Wi-Fi, LTE and 5G

 

Security. Enables end-to-end secure connectivity between users, devices and networks without sacrificing performance

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Axyom can be deployed on a centralized basis on one of our hardware chassis, over distributed network hardware or as a virtualized solution, allowing operators to place network functions where they choose, whether close to the network edge or at a centralized location or data center.

Delivery Platforms

Depending on customer preference, network requirements and current network configuration, our solutions can be deployed in a centralized, distributed or virtual environment. While centralized deployments allow our customers to deploy all critical CCAP functions in a single location, distributed and virtual deployments enable our customers to densify the access network by distributing access deeper into the network, away from existing data centers.

Centralized Deployment. Our C100G CCAP combines CMTS functionality that enables IP data transport from data centers to end-users over cable networks, including voice over IP and edge-quadrature amplitude modulation, or Edge-QAM, functionality to enable video delivery over cable networks in one integrated chassis. We believe our C100G CCAP solution was the industry’s first fully integrated CCAP and DOCSIS 3.1 solution. Our C100G CCAP is capable of supporting downstream speeds of 10 gigabits per second. Our C100G CCAP also features high downstream and upstream channel capacity, and low space and energy consumption requirements. Using our C100G CCAP, our customers whose networks are configured for DOCSIS 3.0 can adopt DOCSIS 3.1 through either a software upgrade or a simple line card addition, while continuing to service their end customers who use DOCSIS 3.0 modems. We are also able to increase capacity for our C100G CCAP through channel expansions, which are remotely installed software-enabled increases in the bandwidth capacity, regardless of whether it is configured for DOCSIS 3.0 or 3.1. We believe that our software-centric approach will enable us to seamlessly provide our customers with future upgrades as standards evolve. In addition to our C100G CCAP, we also offer our C40G CCAP, that provides per rack unit performance comparable to that of our C100G CCAP, but in a smaller form factor.

Distributed Deployment. We offer three solutions for distributed deployment:

 

Remote-PHY Solution. Our R-PHY solution for cable networks consists of remotely deployable hardware that primarily performs RF modulation and connects to a CCAP at the network core to provide subscriber management, session management, access aggregation and security functions. The remotely deployed R-PHY nodes aggregate end-user traffic for delivery back to the central data center. The software at the central data center can run on our C100G CCAP chassis or in a virtual environment. Our R-PHY solution allows broadband service providers that have implemented fiber-deep architectures to deploy ultra-fast fiber connections closer to the end user. By retaining software-driven network control and intelligence functions at the network core and placing physical layer functions remotely in a fiber node, broadband services providers can densify their networks to increase operational efficiencies and network capacity.

 

Remote-MAC/PHY Solution (R-MAC/PHY). Our R-MAC/PHY solution for cable networks offers the capabilities of our R-PHY solution while also moving media access control functions from the network core to remotely deployed R-MAC/PHY nodes, allowing cable service providers to increase network throughput to serve more customers at higher speed.

 

Apex Small Cell Solution. Our Apex small cell solution consists of remotely deployable access points that provide cellular connectivity services at the network edge in conjunction with transport security functions to address coverage and capacity challenges. It allows a number of connectivity options including LTE and 3G. The Apex small cell solution allows broadband service providers to more cost-effectively densify cellular networks.

In connection with all of our centralized and distributed deployment solutions, we offer a portfolio of PON solutions, enabling service providers to move fiber closer to the network edge and deliver a broader range of ultra-broadband services more efficiently and at higher speed. In particular, our portfolio of PON solutions includes end-to-end network elements, including optical line terminals and optical network units, and a DOCSIS Provisioning over Ethernet system for seamless integration of our PON solutions with existing DOCSIS network protocols.

Virtual Deployment. Using our NFV 2.0 software architecture, all of the multi-service applications supported across fixed and wireless by our Axyom software platform can be delivered on a virtualized basis utilizing commodity servers. We are in trials with numerous prospective customers to deliver multi-service applications virtually.

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Multi-Service Applications

Our Axyom software platform initially focused on supporting applications enabling fixed broadband delivery. We have focused our recent development efforts on expanding Axyom’s capabilities to support wireless applications. We refer to multi-service to describe a set of applications that are able to support requirements for both fixed and wireless networks.

Cable Network Applications

We believe our C100G CCAP was the first solution offering full CCAP functionality, allowing the delivery of voice, video and data on a single platform. Our CCAP enables three key applications over a single cable network:

 

DOCSIS Core. Provides high-speed delivery of IP data for broadband connectivity services, including voice over IP.

 

Video Core. Delivers high speed video processing, including for HD and 4K.

 

Intelligent Routing. Intelligently manages network traffic to optimize service quality.

Wireless Network Applications

Our Axyom software platform also enables a number of applications addressing the evolving needs of fixed-mobile convergence as well as mobile network operators:

 

Security Gateway. Enables secure encrypted access for subscribers roaming between trusted and untrusted networks, while providing high levels of density and performance.

 

Small Cells, Wi-Fi and Related Wireless Gateways. Enables routing and security functions as well as traffic management to provide secure connectivity for wireless endpoints and enable broadband services such as LTE over Wi-Fi, including Wi-Fi calling.

 

Evolved Packet Core. Enables subscriber management, session management and authentication, security and data exchange between the core network and subscribers.

Capacity Expansion Products

Our CCAP’s flexible design allows our customers to rapidly increase service capabilities and tailor our solution to meet their evolving service needs.

Our software platform permits additional capacity and features to be provisioned remotely, as compared to hardware-centric solutions, which require wholesale hardware replacements. As new standards and services evolve and broadband networks become increasingly virtualized, we expect we will be able to deliver additional capabilities as software-only updates.

Our line card expansion options allow our customers to rapidly add new service interfaces and physical connection capacity without the need for chassis replacements. In addition, our expansion cards can cost-effectively enable support for our distributed access solutions utilizing the same C100G CCAP chassis.

Our Customers

Our solutions are commercially deployed by more than 450 customers, including some of the world’s largest Tier 1 broadband service providers:

 

in North America: Charter/Time Warner Cable, Rogers, Sprint and Mediacom;

 

in Latin America: Televisa/IZZI Mexico, Megacable Mexico and Claro Telmex Colombia;

 

in Europe: Liberty Global, Vodafone and DNA Oyj; and

 

in Asia-Pacific: Jupiter Communications and Beijing Gehua CATV Networks and China Mobile.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our products and services through our direct sales force and in partnership with our resellers and sales agents. Our sales force is supported by our sales engineering team, which has deep technical expertise and the capability for

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product presentations, product evaluations, trials and customer care. Each sales team is responsible for specific direct end-customer accounts and/or a geographic territory across the following regions: North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific and Europe, Middle East and Africa. We intend to expand our sales force and our reseller and sales agent network.

Our products typically have a long sales cycle, requiring detailed discussions with prospective customers about their network requirements and technology roadmaps. To help us succeed in a market characterized by long sales cycles, we have developed strong customer relationships, which in turn provide us with insight into how our products will be deployed in our customers’ networks. We involve product engineers in the sales process, enabling them to build relationships with customers that are valuable both during implementation and in post-sales customer support. These relationships also provide us with opportunities to leverage our familiarity with our customers’ needs to make additional sales following the initial sale.

We also use resellers to market, sell and support our products and services, and we use sales agents to assist our direct global sales force with certain customers primarily located in the Latin America and Asia-Pacific regions.

Our marketing activities consist primarily of technology conferences, web marketing, trade shows, seminars and events, public relations, analyst relations, demand generation and direct marketing to build our brand, increase customer awareness, communicate our product advantages and generate qualified leads for our field sales force and resellers and sales agents.

Competition

The broadband service provider market is highly competitive and subject to rapidly changing technology trends and shifting customer needs.

We primarily compete with larger and more established companies in the broadband service provider market, such as Arris, Cisco, Ericsson and Nokia.

The principal factors upon which we compete are:

 

product capabilities;

 

performance;

 

scalability, flexibility and adaptability to new standards;

 

ability to innovate;

 

time to market;

 

customer support; and

 

total cost of ownership relative to performance and features.

We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors. Nevertheless, many of our competitors have substantial competitive advantages, including greater name recognition, longer operating histories, and substantially greater financial, technical, research and development or other resources than we do.

Research and Development

Our research and development efforts are focused on developing new broadband products for the cable and wireless markets and enhancing our current products to meet the current and future needs of our customers. We aim to be first to market with deployable products and are willing to invest early in research and development and take technological risks to meet this goal. We also seek to enhance our technological innovation through our partnerships with industry standard-setting organizations and groups, such as CableLabs, 3GPP and Wi-Fi Alliance. These efforts position us to be able to advance industry standards while evolving our solutions to meet such new standards.

As of December 31, 2017, our research and development organization consisted of 399 employees worldwide, including both software and hardware engineers. Our research and development expense totaled $60.7 million, $49.2 million and $37.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. We plan to continue to devote substantial resources to our research and development activities.

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Manufacturing

We contract with multiple U.S.-based manufacturing firms, including Benchmark and Sanmina, to manufacture the hardware for our products using the designs, components and standards that we specify. After taking delivery from our contract manufacturers, we conduct final assembly and quality assurance testing at our facilities in Lawrence, Massachusetts and Limerick, Ireland. We believe our combination of local manufacturing and in-house assembly and quality assurance allows us to maintain consistency and quality in the products we ship to customers. We also believe that this manufacturing model enables us to respond quickly to technological changes and supports our engineering goal of being first to market with deployable products. We believe our inventory management enables us to offer shorter times between order and delivery to our customers as compared to our competitors.

We enter into purchase agreements with our contract manufacturers, generally with terms of one year or more. There are no minimum purchase requirements under these agreements and we purchase manufactured goods on a purchase order basis. As a result of our use of multiple contract manufacturers, we believe that we are not substantially dependent on the availability of any single contract manufacturer. Our contract manufacturers purchase the materials and components for our products through a variety of major electronics distributors. The materials and components of our solutions are generally available in adequate quantities from multiple potential suppliers.

Backlog

We do not have any long-term purchase commitments from customers. Customers generally order products on an as-needed basis with short lead and delivery times on a per-purchase-order basis. We maintain substantial finished goods inventory to ensure that products can generally be shipped shortly after receipt of an order.

A portion of our customer shipments in any fiscal period relate to orders received in prior fiscal periods. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had backlog of $40.0 million and $24.5 million, respectively. The increase in backlog over that period was due principally to the timing of shipments of our software-centric broadband products, delivery of software-based capacity expansions and the timing of maintenance and support contract renewals. Of the amount of backlog as of December 31, 2017, we expect that approximately $36.8 million will be shipped within the following twelve months. However, because our customers utilize purchase orders containing non-binding purchase commitments and customers may cancel, change or reschedule orders without penalty at any time prior to shipment, we have no assurance that we will be able to convert our backlog into shipped orders.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks, as well as contractual protections. To date, we have focused our efforts to protect our intellectual property primarily on trade secrets because the cable industry generally relies on non-patentable CableLabs standards and specifications that are jointly developed by market participants.

We limit access to and use of our proprietary software, technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including nondisclosure agreements with employees, consultants, customers and vendors and other measures for maintaining trade secret protection. We generally license our software to customers pursuant to agreements that impose restrictions on the customers’ ability to use the software, including prohibitions on reverse engineering and limitations on the use of copies. We also seek to avoid disclosure of our intellectual property by requiring employees and consultants with access to our proprietary information to execute nondisclosure and assignment of intellectual property agreements and by restricting access to our source code.

We also incorporate a number of third-party software programs into our solutions pursuant to license agreements. Our software is not substantially dependent on any third-party software, although in some cases it utilizes open source code.

Employees

As of December 31, 2017, we employed 680 full-time employees, of which 359 were located in the United States and 321 were located outside the United States. Our workforce as of December 31, 2017, consisted of 399 employees in engineering and research and development, 122 employees in sales and marketing, 65 employees in general and administrative, 59 employees in manufacturing and 35 employees in services and support. None of our employees are

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represented by unions. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good and have not experienced significant interruptions of operations due to labor disagreements.

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on February 28, 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 100 Old River Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, and our telephone number at that address is (978) 688-6706.

Available Information

We maintain an internet website at www.casa-systems.com and make available free of charge through our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. We make these reports available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish such reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. You can find, copy and inspect information we file at the SEC’s public reference room, which is located at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, DC 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the SEC’s public reference room. You can review our electronically filed reports and other information that we file with the SEC on the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. We also make available, free of charge on our website, the reports filed with the SEC by our executive officers, directors and 10% stockholders pursuant to Section 16 under the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after copies of those filings are provided to us by those persons. In addition, we regularly use our website to post information regarding our business, product development programs and governance, and we encourage investors to use our website, particularly the information in the section entitled “Investor Relations,” as a source of information about us.

The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our website address is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as an inactive technical reference only.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Our business is subject to numerous risks. The following important factors, among others, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, press releases, communications with investors, and oral statements. Actual future results may differ materially from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

If we do not successfully anticipate technological shifts, market needs and opportunities, and develop new products and product enhancements that meet those technological shifts, needs and opportunities, we may not be able to compete effectively.

The broadband service provider market, including fixed and wireless, is characterized by rapid technological shifts and increasingly complex customer requirements to achieve scalable networks that accommodate rapidly increasing consumer demand for bandwidth. To compete effectively, we must continue to develop new technologies and products that address emerging technological trends and changing customer needs. The process of developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and the development of new offerings requires significant upfront investment that may not result in material improvements to existing products or result in marketable new products or costs savings or revenue for an extended period of time, if at all.

We believe that our culture of innovation is a significant factor in our ability to develop new products. If we are not able to attract and retain employees that are able to contribute to our culture of innovation, our ability to identify emerging technological trends and changing customer needs and successfully develop new products to address them could be adversely impacted.

The success of new products and enhancements also depends on many other factors, including timely completion and introduction, differentiation from products offered by competitors and previous versions of our own products and, ultimately,

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market acceptance of these new products and enhancements. In addition, new technologies or standards could render our existing products obsolete or less attractive to customers. If we are unable to successfully introduce new products and enhancements, we would not be able to compete effectively and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our success depends in large part on broadband service providers’ continued deployment of, and investment in, ultra-broadband network capabilities that make use of our solutions.

A significant portion of our product and solution suite is dedicated to enabling cable service providers to deliver voice, video and data services over newer and faster ultra-broadband networks. As a result, our success depends significantly on these cable service providers’ continued deployment of, and investment in, their networks, which depends on a number of factors outside of our control. These factors include capital constraints, the presence of available capacity on legacy networks, perceived subscriber demand for ultra-broadband networks, competitive conditions within the broadband service provider industry and regulatory issues. If broadband service providers do not continue deploying and investing in their ultra-broadband networks in ways that involve our solutions, for these or other reasons, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We expect certain of our customers will continue to represent a substantial portion of our revenue.

Historically, certain of our customers have accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. For example, sales to Charter, which purchased Time Warner Cable in 2016, accounted for 37%, 23% and 14% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively; sales to Liberty Global accounted for 11%, 10% and 17% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively; and sales to Rogers accounted for 19% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016. Based on their historical purchasing patterns, we expect that our large customers will continue to account for a substantial portion of our revenue in future periods. However, our customers generally make purchases from us on a purchase-order basis rather than pursuant to long-term contracts, and those that do enter long-term contracts typically have the right to terminate their contracts for convenience. As a result, we generally have no assurances that these large customers will continue to purchase our solutions. We may also see consolidation of our customer base, which could result in loss of customers. In addition, some of our large customers have used, and may in the future use, the sizes and relative importance of their orders to our business to require that we enter into agreements with more favorable terms than we would otherwise agree to and obtain price concessions. The loss of a significant customer, a significant delay or reduction in purchases by large customers or significant price concessions to one or more large customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Timing of large orders and seasonality in our revenue may cause our quarterly revenue and results of operations to fluctuate and possibly decline materially from quarter to quarter.

Our customers tend to make large purchases from us when initiating or upgrading services based on our solutions, followed by smaller purchases for maintenance and ongoing support. In addition, purchases by existing customers of capacity expansions can also involve large individual orders that may represent a significant portion of our revenue for a fiscal quarter, which may also have a significant impact on our quarterly gross margin due to these capacity expansions generating higher gross margins than our initial hardware-based deployments. As a result of all of these factors, our quarterly revenue and results of operations, including our gross margin, may be significantly impacted by one or a small number of large individual orders. For example, any cancellation of orders or any acceleration or delay in anticipated product purchases or the acceptance of shipped products by a large customer could materially affect our revenue and results of operations in any quarterly period. We may be unable to sustain or increase our revenue from other new or existing customers to offset the discontinuation of purchases by one of our larger customers. As a result, our quarterly revenue and results of operations are difficult to estimate and may fluctuate or decline materially from quarter to quarter.

In addition, we believe that there are significant seasonal factors which may cause revenue to be greater for the first and fourth quarters of our fiscal year as compared to the second and third quarters. We believe that this seasonality results from a number of factors, including the procurement, budgeting and deployment cycles of many of our customers. These seasonal variations may cause our quarterly revenue and results of operations to fluctuate or decline materially from quarter to quarter.

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Our sales to the broadband service provider market are volatile and our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable. As a result, our sales and revenue are difficult to predict and may vary substantially from period to period, which may cause our revenue and results of operations to fluctuate and possibly decline significantly.

Our sales to the broadband service provider market have been characterized by large and sporadic purchases and long sales cycles. Sales activity often depends upon the stage of completion of expanding network infrastructures, the availability of funding and the extent to which broadband service providers are affected by regulatory, economic and business conditions in the countries in which they operate.

In addition, the timing of our sales and revenue recognition is difficult to forecast because of the unpredictability of our products’ sales cycles. A sales cycle is the period between initial contact with a prospective customer and the sale of our products to that customer. Customer orders often involve the purchase of multiple products. These orders are complex and difficult to obtain because prospective customers generally consider a number of factors over an extended period of time before committing to purchase the products and solutions we sell. Customers, especially in the case of our large customers, often view the purchase of our products as a significant and strategic decision and require considerable time to evaluate, test and qualify our products prior to making a purchase decision and placing an order. The length of time that customers devote to their evaluation, contract negotiation and budgeting processes varies significantly, but can often exceed 24 months. During the sales cycle, we expend significant time and money on sales and marketing activities and make investments in evaluation equipment, all of which are included in our sales and marketing expenses and lower our operating margins, particularly if no sale occurs.

Even if a customer decides to purchase our products, there are many factors affecting the timing of our recognition of revenue, which makes our revenue difficult to forecast. For example, the sale of our products may be subject to acceptance testing or there may be unexpected delays in a customer’s internal procurement processes, particularly for some of our larger customers, for whom our products represent a very small percentage of their total procurement activity. These factors may result in our inability to recognize revenue for months or years following a sale. In addition, other factors that are specific to particular customers can affect the timing of their purchases and the variability of our revenue recognition, including the strategic importance of a particular project to a customer, budgetary constraints and changes in their personnel. For all of these reasons, it is difficult to predict whether a sale will be completed, the particular period in which a sale will be completed and the period in which revenue from a sale will be recognized. If our sales cycles lengthen, our revenue could be lower than expected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not generate positive returns on our research and development investments.

Developing our products is expensive, and the investment in product development may involve a long payback cycle or may result in investments in technologies or standards that do not get adopted in the timeframe we anticipate, or at all. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, our research and development expenses were $60.7 million, or approximately 17.3% of our revenue, $49.2 million, or approximately 15.6% of our revenue, and $37.2 million, or approximately 13.6% of our revenue, respectively. We expect to continue to invest heavily in software development in order to expand the capabilities of our broadband and wireless infrastructure solutions, introduce new products and features and build upon our technology leadership, and we expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue from 2017 to 2018. Our investments in research and development may not generate positive returns in a timely fashion or at all.

Our converged cable access platform, or CCAP, solutions currently represent a significant majority of our product sales; this concentration may limit our ability to increase our revenue, and our business would be adversely affected in the event we are unable to sell one or more of our products.

We are heavily dependent upon the sales of our CCAP solutions. In the event we are unable to market and sell these products or any future product that represents a substantial amount of our revenue, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We have invested heavily in developing wireless solutions, and we face risks in seeking to expand our platform into the wireless market.

We have invested heavily in developing wireless solutions that have yet to generate any significant revenue. We cannot guarantee that these investments, or any of our other investments in research and development, will ever generate material revenue or become profitable for us, and the failure of these investments to generate positive returns may adversely impact

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our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The wireless market makes up a substantial portion of our total potential addressable market. In addition, expanding our offerings into the wireless market presents other significant risks and uncertainties, including potential distraction of management from other business operations that generate more substantial revenue, the dedication of significant research and development, sales and marketing, and other resources to this new business line at the expense of our other business operations and other risks that we may not have adequately anticipated.

We believe the broadband service provider industry is in the early stages of a major architectural shift toward the virtualization of networks and the use of networks with distributed architectures. If the architectural shift does not occur, if it does not occur at the pace we predict, or if the products and services we have developed are not attractive to our customers after such shift takes place, our revenues could decline.

We believe the broadband service provider industry is in the early stages of transitioning to the virtualization of networks and the use of networks with distributed architecturesWe are developing products and services that we believe will be attractive to our customers and potential customers who make that shift. Our strategy depends in part on our belief that the industry shift to a software-centric cloud-based architecture and increasing densification will continue. In our experience, fundamental changes like this often take time to accelerate and the adoption rates of our customers may vary. As our customers determine their future network architectures and how to implement them, we may encounter delayed timing of orders, deferred purchasing decisions and reduced expenditures. These longer decision cycles and reduced expenditures may negatively impact our revenues, or make it difficult for us to accurately predict our revenues, either of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Moreover, it is possible that our customers may reverse or fail to expand upon current trends toward virtualization and distributed architectures, which could result in significantly reduced demand for the products that we have developed and currently plan to develop.

We face intense competition, including from larger, well-established companies, and we may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position.

The market for broadband infrastructure solutions is intensely competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors and new market entrants. This competition could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses and our failure to increase, or the loss of, market share, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In the broadband service provider market, we primarily compete with larger and more established companies, such as Arris, Cisco, Ericsson and Nokia.

Many of our existing and potential competitors enjoy substantial competitive advantages, such as:

 

greater name recognition and longer operating histories;

 

larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;

 

broader distribution and established relationships with customers;

 

greater access to larger customer bases;

 

greater customer support resources;

 

greater manufacturing resources;

 

the ability to leverage their sales efforts across a broader portfolio of products;

 

the ability to leverage purchasing power with vendor subcomponents;

 

the ability to incorporate additional functionality into their existing products;

 

the ability to bundle offerings with other products and services;

 

the ability to set more aggressive pricing policies;

 

the ability to offer greater amounts of equity and more valuable equity as incentives for purchases of their products and services;

 

lower labor and development costs;

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greater resources to fund research and development or otherwise acquire new product offerings;

 

larger intellectual property portfolios; and

 

substantially greater financial, technical, research and development or other resources.

Our ability to compete will depend upon our ability to provide a better solution than our competitors at a price that offers superior value. We may be required to make substantial additional investments in research, development, sales and marketing in order to respond to competition.

We also expect increased competition if our market continues to expand. Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements or other factors. Current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties that have greater resources available than we do. Our current or potential competitors might take advantage of the greater resources of the larger organizations resulting from these acquisitions to compete more vigorously or broadly with us. In addition, continued industry consolidation might adversely affect customers’ perceptions of the viability of smaller and even medium-sized companies, such as us, and, consequently, customers’ willingness to purchase from us. Further, certain large customers may develop broadband infrastructure solutions for internal use and/or to broaden their portfolios of internally developed resources, which could allow these customers to become new competitors in our market.

If we are unable to sell additional products to our existing customers, our revenue growth will be adversely affected and our revenue could decline.

To increase our revenue, we must sell additional products to our existing customers and add new customers. We expect that a substantial portion of our future sales will be follow-on sales to existing customers. For example, one of our sales strategies is to target sales of capacity expansions and implementation of wireless solutions at our current cable customers because they are familiar with the operational and economic benefits of our solutions. However, our existing customers may choose to use other providers for their infrastructure needs. If we fail to sell additional products to our existing customers, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We may have difficulty attracting new large customers or acquiring new customers due to the high costs of switching broadband equipment.

Broadband service providers typically need to make substantial investments when deploying network infrastructure, which can delay a purchasing decision. Once a broadband service provider has deployed infrastructure for a particular portion of its network, it is often difficult and costly to switch to another vendor’s infrastructure. Unless we are able to demonstrate that our products offer significant performance, functionality or cost advantages that outweigh a customer’s expense of switching from a competitor’s product, it will be difficult for us to generate sales once that competitor’s equipment has been deployed. Accordingly, if a customer has already deployed a competitor’s product for its broadband infrastructure, it may be difficult for us to sell our products to that customer. If we fail to attract new large customers or acquire new customers, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We are exposed to the credit risk of some of our customers and to credit exposures in the event of turmoil in the credit markets, which could result in material losses.

Due to our reliance on significant customers, we are dependent on the continued financial strength of these customers. If one or more of our significant customers experience financial difficulties, it could result in uncollectable accounts receivable and our loss of such customers and anticipated revenue.

The majority of our sales are on an open credit basis, with typical payment terms of one year or less. We monitor individual customer payment capability in granting such open credit arrangements, seeking to limit such open credit to amounts we believe our customers can pay and maintain reserves we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts. However, there can be no assurance that our open credit customers will pay the amounts they owe to us or that the reserves we maintain will be adequate to cover such credit exposure. Our customers’ failure to pay and/or our failure to maintain sufficient reserves could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements. In addition, in the event that turmoil in the credit markets makes it more difficult for some customers to obtain financing, those customers’ ability to pay could be adversely impacted, which in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business and operations.

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A portion of our sales is also derived through our resellers, which tend to have more limited financial resources than other customers and to present increased credit risk. Our resellers also typically have the ability to terminate their agreements with us for any reason upon advance written notice.

We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our sales agreements are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars. Therefore, a strengthening U.S. dollar could increase the real cost of our products to our customers outside of the U.S., and alternatively a decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies could increase our product and operating costs in foreign locations. If we are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with the currency fluctuations, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We generate a significant amount of revenue from sales to customers outside of the United States, and we are therefore subject to a number of risks associated with international sales and operations.

We have extensive international operations and generate a significant amount of revenue from sales to customers in Asia-Pacific, Europe and the Latin America. Our ability to grow our business and our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to continue to expand our operations and customer base worldwide.

As a result of our international reach, we must hire and train experienced personnel to staff and manage our foreign operations. To the extent that we experience difficulties in recruiting, training, managing and retaining an international staff, and specifically staff related to sales management and sales personnel, we may experience difficulties in sales productivity in foreign markets. We also enter into strategic relationships with resellers and sales agents in certain international markets where we do not have a local presence. If we are not able to maintain these relationships or to recruit additional companies to enter into reseller and sales agent relationships, our future success in these international markets could be limited. Business practices in the international markets that we serve may differ from those in the U.S. and may require us in the future to include terms other than our standard terms in customer contracts. To the extent that we may enter into customer contracts in the future that include non-standard terms related to payment, warranties or performance obligations, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

greater difficulty in enforcing contracts and accounts receivable collection and longer collection periods;

 

increased expenses incurred in establishing and maintaining our international operations;

 

fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies where we do business;

 

greater difficulty and costs in recruiting local experienced personnel;

 

wage inflation in certain growing economies;

 

general economic and political conditions in these foreign markets;

 

economic uncertainty around the world as a result of sovereign debt issues;

 

communication and integration problems resulting from cultural and geographic dispersion;

 

limitations on our ability to access cash resources in our international operations;

 

ability to establish necessary business relationships and to comply with local business requirements;

 

risks associated with trade restrictions and foreign legal requirements, including the importation, certification and localization of our products required in foreign countries;

 

greater risk of unexpected changes in regulatory practices, tariffs and tax laws and treaties;

 

the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

delays resulting from our need to comply with foreign cybersecurity laws;

 

greater risk of a failure of our operations and employees to comply with both U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including antitrust regulations, the FCPA, privacy and data protection laws and regulations and any trade regulations ensuring fair trade practices; and

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heightened risk of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of, or irregularities in, financial statements.

These and other factors could harm our ability to gain future international revenue and, consequently, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Expanding our existing international operations and entering into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial commitments. Our failure to successfully manage our international operations and the associated risks effectively could limit our future growth or materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their employees and intermediaries from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business, securing an advantage or directing business to another individual or entity, and requires companies to maintain accurate books and records. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for the corrupt actions taken by directors, officers, employees, agents, or other strategic or local partners or representatives. We rely on non-employee third-party representatives and other intermediaries to develop international sales opportunities, and generally have less direct control over such third parties’ actions taken on our behalf. If we or our intermediaries fail to comply with the requirements of the FCPA or similar legislation, governmental authorities in the United States and elsewhere could seek to impose civil and/or criminal fines and penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition. We intend to increase our international sales and business and, as such, the cost of complying with such laws, and the potential harm from our noncompliance, are likely to increase.

Failure to comply with anti-corruption laws, such as the FCPA and the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010, or the Bribery Act, and similar laws associated with our activities outside the U.S., could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences. Any violation of the FCPA, Bribery Act or similar laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and prospects. In addition, responding to any enforcement action or related investigation may result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate these controls.

Our products may be subject to various export controls and because we incorporate encryption technology into certain of our products, certain of our products may be exported from various countries only with the required export license or through an export license exception. Furthermore, certain export control and economic sanctions laws prohibit the shipment of certain products, technology, software and services to embargoed countries and sanctioned governments, entities, and persons. If we fail to comply with the applicable export control laws, customs regulations, economic sanctions or other applicable laws, we could be subject to monetary damages or the imposition of restrictions which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and could also harm our reputation. Further, there could be criminal penalties for knowing or willful violations, including incarceration for culpable employees and managers. Obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. We recently discovered that we may have inadvertently violated certain technical provisions of the U.S. export control laws and regulations by failing to inform customers of their export control obligations and failing to make certain submissions to the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security, or BIS, in a timely and complete manner. However, we believe that the exports of our products were all to destinations and end users that would not have required licensing under the U.S. export control and sanctions laws. We have voluntarily disclosed the potential technical violations to BIS, and, although BIS may impose a penalty, we do not expect any such penalty to be material to our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology and products, including through import permit and license requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations or create

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delays in the introduction of our products into international markets. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our revenue growth rate in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance.

Our revenue growth rate in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance. Our revenue grew 16.0% from the year ended December 31, 2015 to the year ended December 31, 2016 and grew 11.2% from the year ended December 31, 2016 to the year ended December 31, 2017. We may not achieve similar revenue growth rates in future periods. You should not rely on our revenue for any prior quarterly or annual period as any indication of our future revenue or revenue growth. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

As the majority of the growth in our revenue and income from operations has occurred since 2013, it is difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

We were founded in 2003 and booked our first revenue in 2006. The majority of the growth in our revenue and income from operations has occurred since 2013, and it is difficult to evaluate our future prospects, including our ability to plan for and manage future growth. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by rapidly growing companies in constantly evolving industries, including the risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected, and the market price of our common stock could decline.

Our products are necessary for the operation of our customers’ broadband service operations. Product quality problems, warranty claims, services disruptions, or other defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our products or services could harm our reputation and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We assist our customers in the operation of their broadband service operations. Failures of our products could result in significant interruptions in our customers’ capabilities to maintain their networks and operations. Further, unsatisfactory performance could cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs in analyzing, correcting or redesigning our products, cause us to lose significant customers, subject us to liability for damages and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of our networks, system, or products. Such defects could result in warranty claims or claims by customers for losses that they sustain or, in some cases, could allow customers to claim damages. In the past, we have had to replace certain components of products that we had shipped or provide remediation in response to the discovery of defects or bugs from failures in software protocols.

Limitation of liability provisions in our standard terms and conditions of sale, and those of our resellers and sales agents, may not be enforceable under some circumstances or may not fully or effectively protect us from end-customer claims and related liabilities and costs. In some cases, including with respect to indemnification obligations under many of our agreements with customers and resellers, our contractual liability may be uncapped. The sale and support of our products also entail the risk of product liability claims. We maintain insurance to protect against certain types of claims associated with the use of our products, but our insurance coverage may not adequately cover any such claims. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in expenditures of funds in connection with litigation and divert management’s time and other resources.

Our products must interoperate with operating systems, software applications and hardware, and comply with industry standards, that are developed by others, and if we are unable to devote the necessary resources for our products to interoperate with such software and hardware and comply with such standards, we may lose or fail to increase market share and experience a weakening demand for our products.

Generally, our products comprise only a part of and must interoperate with our customers’ existing infrastructure, specifically their networks, servers, software and operating systems, which may be manufactured by a wide variety of vendors and original equipment manufacturers. Our products must also comply with industry standards, such as Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, or DOCSIS, 3.0 and 3.1, which are established by third parties, in order to interoperate

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with such servers, storage, software and other networking equipment such that all systems function efficiently together. We may depend on other vendors to support prevailing industry standards. Also, some industry standards may not be widely adopted or implemented uniformly, and competing standards and other approaches may emerge that may be preferred by our customers.

In addition, when new or updated versions of these industry standards, software systems or applications are introduced, we must sometimes develop updated versions of our software so that our products will interoperate properly. We may not accomplish these development efforts quickly, cost-effectively or at all. These development efforts require capital investment and the devotion of engineering resources. If we fail to maintain compatibility with these systems and applications, our customers may not be able to adequately utilize our products, and we may lose or fail to increase market share and experience a weakening in demand for our products, among other consequences, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our ability to sell our products is highly dependent on the quality of our support and services offerings, and our failure to offer high-quality support and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Once our products are deployed within our customers’ networks, our customers depend on our support organization to resolve any issues relating to our products. Our provision of high-quality support is critical for the successful marketing and sale of our products. If we do not assist our customers in deploying our products effectively, do not succeed in helping our customers resolve post-deployment issues quickly or do not provide adequate ongoing support, it could adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing customers and could harm our reputation with potential customers. In addition, our standard sales contracts require us to provide minimum service requirements to our customers on an ongoing basis and our failure to satisfy these requirements could expose us to claims under these contracts. Our failure to maintain high-quality support and services, including compliance with our contractual minimum service obligations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We base our inventory requirements on our forecasts of future sales. If these forecasts are materially inaccurate, we may procure inventory that we may be unable to use in a timely manner or at all.

We and our contract manufacturers procure components and build our products based on our forecasts. These forecasts are based on estimates of future demand for our products, which are in turn based on historical trends and analyses from our sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions. To the extent our forecasts are materially inaccurate or if we otherwise do not need such inventory, we may under- or over-procure inventory, and such inaccuracies in our forecasts could subject us to contractual damages and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Because we depend on third-party manufacturers to build our hardware, we are susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from delivering customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales and customers.

We depend on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our product hardware. A significant portion of our cost of revenue consists of payments to these third-party contract manufacturers. Our reliance on these third-party contract manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process, quality assurance, product costs and product supply and timing, which exposes us to risk. To the extent that our products are manufactured at facilities in foreign countries, we may be subject to additional risks associated with complying with local rules and regulations in those jurisdictions. If we are unable to manage our relationships with our third-party contract manufacturers effectively, or if these third-party manufacturers suffer delays or disruptions for any reason, experience increased manufacturing lead times, capacity constraints or quality control problems in their manufacturing operations or fail to meet our future requirements for timely delivery, our ability to ship products to our customers would be severely impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our contract manufacturers typically fulfill our supply requirements on the basis of individual orders. We do not have long-term contracts with our third-party manufacturers that guarantee capacity, the continuation of particular pricing terms or the extension of credit limits. Accordingly, they are not obligated to continue to fulfill our supply requirements, which could result in supply shortages, and increases in the prices for manufacturing services on short notice. We may not be able to develop alternate contract manufacturers in a timely manner, or at all. If we add or change contract manufacturers, or change any manufacturing plant locations within a contract manufacturer network, we would add additional complexity and risk to our supply chain management.

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In addition, we may be subject to significant challenges in ensuring that quality, processes and costs, among other issues, are consistent with our expectations and those of our customers. A new contract manufacturer or manufacturing location may not be able to scale its production of our products at the volumes or quality we require. This could also adversely affect our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers, which could damage our customer relationships and cause the loss of sales to existing or potential customers, late delivery penalties, delayed revenue or an increase in our costs which could adversely affect our gross margins. This could also result in increased levels of inventory subjecting us to increased excess and obsolete charges that could have a negative impact on our results of operations.

Because some of the key components in our products come from limited sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages or supply changes, which could disrupt or delay our scheduled product deliveries to our customers and may result in the loss of sales and customers.

Our products rely on key components that our contract manufacturers purchase on our behalf from a limited number of suppliers, including Altera, Analog Devices, Bell Power, Broadcom, Maxim, Mini-Circuits, Qorvo, TTM Technologies and Xilinx. We do not have guaranteed supply contracts with any of our component suppliers, and our suppliers could delay shipments or cease manufacturing such products or selling them to us at any time. The development of alternate sources for those components is time-consuming, difficult and costly. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient quantity of these components on commercially reasonable terms or in a timely manner, sales of our products could be delayed or halted entirely or we may be required to redesign our products. Any of these events could result in lost sales and damage to our customer relationships, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In the event of a shortage or supply interruption from our component suppliers, we may not be able to develop alternate or second sources in a timely manner, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, certain of our customer contracts require us to notify our customers of any discontinuation of the products that we supply to them and to provide support for discontinued products, and lack of supply from our suppliers could leave us unable to fulfill our customer support obligations. Adverse changes to our relationships with our sole suppliers could result in lost sales and damage to our customer relationships, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on resellers and sales agents to sell our products into certain international markets, and the loss of such resellers and sales agents could delay or harm our ability to deliver our products to our customers.

We rely upon resellers and sales agents to coordinate sales and distribution of our products in certain international markets. We provide our resellers and sales agents with specific training and programs to assist them in selling our products, but these steps may not be effective. In addition, our resellers and sales agents may be unsuccessful in marketing, selling and supporting our products and services. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective sales incentive programs for our resellers and sales agents, we may not be able to incentivize these resellers and sales agents to sell our products to customers. Any of our resellers and sales agents could elect to consolidate or enter into a strategic partnership with one of our competitors, which could reduce or eliminate our future opportunities with that reseller or sales agent. Our agreements with our resellers and sales agents may generally be terminated for any reason by either party with advance notice. We may be unable to retain these resellers and sales agents or secure additional or replacement resellers and sales agents. The replacement of one or more of our significant resellers or sales agents requires extensive training, and any new or expanded relationship with a reseller or sales agent may take several months or more to achieve productivity. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business and operations have experienced rapid growth in recent years, and if we do not appropriately manage any future growth or are unable to improve our systems and processes, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be adversely affected.

We have experienced rapid growth and increased demand for our products in recent years, which have placed a strain on our management, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. For example, our revenue increased from $272.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 to $316.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and to $351.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. To handle this growth and increase in demand, we have significantly expanded our headcount, from 481 as of December 31, 2015 to 604 as of December 31, 2016 and to 680 as of December 31, 2017, and we expect to continue to increase our headcount. As we have grown, we have had to manage an increasingly larger and more complex array of internal systems and processes to scale with all aspects of our business, including our software development, contract manufacturing and purchasing, logistics and fulfillment and sales, maintenance and support. Our success will depend in part upon our ability to manage our growth effectively. To do so, we must continue to increase the productivity of our existing employees and continue to hire, train and manage new employees as needed. To manage domestic and international growth of our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting processes and procedures and implement more extensive and integrated

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financial and business information systems. We may not be able to successfully implement these or other improvements to our systems and processes in an efficient or timely manner, and we may discover deficiencies in their capabilities or effectiveness. Our failure to improve our systems and processes, or their failure to operate effectively and in the intended manner, may result in disruption of our current operations and customer relationships, our inability to manage the growth of our business and our inability to accurately forecast our revenue, expenses and earnings.

If we are unable to hire, retain, train and motivate qualified personnel and senior management, including in particular our founders, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.

Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, particularly software engineering and sales personnel. Competition for highly skilled personnel is often intense, particularly in the greater Boston region where we are headquartered, and we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees that we need to support our business. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have to provide more attractive compensation packages and other amenities. Research and development personnel are aggressively recruited by startup and growth companies, which are especially active in many of the technical areas and geographic regions in which we conduct product development. In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the high-technology industry, job candidates often consider the value of the stock-based compensation they are to receive in connection with their employment. Declines in the market price of our stock could adversely affect our ability to attract, motivate or retain key employees. If we are unable to attract or retain qualified personnel, or if there are delays in hiring required personnel, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Also, to the extent we hire personnel from competitors, or from certain customers or other third parties whose employees we have agreed not to solicit, we may be subject to allegations that such personnel have been improperly solicited, that such personnel have divulged proprietary or other confidential information or that former employers own certain inventions or other work product. Such claims could result in litigation.

Our future performance also depends on the continued services and continuing contributions of our founders and senior management to execute our business plan and to identify and pursue new opportunities and product innovations. Our employment arrangements with our employees do not require that they continue to work for us for any specified period, and therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. In particular, the loss of Jerry Guo, our President and Chief Executive Officer, and Weidong Chen, our Chief Technology Officer, could have a material adverse impact on our business. Further, the loss of other members of our senior management team, sales and marketing team or engineering team, or any difficulty attracting or retaining other highly qualified personnel in the future, could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Except with respect to Mr. Guo, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance on our officers, directors or key employees.

If we do not effectively expand and train our direct sales force, we may be unable to increase sales to our existing customers or add new customers, and our business will be adversely affected.

We depend on our direct sales force to increase sales with existing customers and to obtain new customers. As such, we have invested and will continue to invest substantially in our sales organization. In recent periods, we have been adding personnel to our sales function as we focus on growing our business, entering new markets and increasing our market share, and we expect to incur significant additional expenses in expanding our sales personnel in order to achieve revenue growth. There is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, retaining and integrating sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth, particularly in international markets. In addition, we have significantly increased the number of personnel in our sales and marketing departments in recent periods, with headcount growing from 94 as of December 31, 2015 to 114 as of December 31, 2016 and to 122 as of December 31, 2017. New hires require significant training and may take significant time before they achieve full productivity. Our recent hires and planned hires may not become productive as quickly as we expect, and we may be unable to hire, retain or integrate into our corporate culture sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the markets where we do business or plan to do business. If we are unable to hire, integrate and train a sufficient number of effective sales personnel, or the sales personnel we hire are not successful in obtaining new customers or increasing sales to our existing customer base, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

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Adverse economic conditions or reduced broadband infrastructure spending may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business depends on the overall demand for broadband connectivity. Weak domestic or global economic conditions, fear or anticipation of such conditions or a reduction in broadband infrastructure spending even if economic conditions improve, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in a number of ways, including longer sales cycles, lower prices for our products and services, reduced sales and lower or no growth. Continued turmoil in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world may also affect the overall demand for our products and services. Deterioration in global economic or political conditions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future. A prolonged period of economic uncertainty or a downturn may also significantly affect the availability of capital and the terms and conditions of financing arrangements, including the overall cost of financing as well as the financial health or creditworthiness of our customers. Circumstances may arise in which we need, or desire, to raise additional capital, and such capital may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

Breaches of our cybersecurity systems and measures could degrade our ability to conduct our business operations and deliver products and services to our customers, delay our ability to recognize revenue, compromise the integrity of our products, result in significant data losses and the theft of our intellectual property, damage our reputation, expose us to liability to third parties and require us to incur significant additional costs to maintain the security of our networks and data.

We increasingly depend upon our IT systems to conduct virtually all of our business operations, ranging from our internal operations and product development activities to our marketing and sales efforts and communications with our customers and business partners. Certain persons and entities may attempt to penetrate our network and systems, or of the systems hosting our website, and may otherwise seek to misappropriate our proprietary or confidential information or cause interruptions of our service. Because the techniques used by such persons and entities to access or sabotage networks and systems change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. We have also outsourced a number of our business functions to third-parties, including our manufacturers and logistics providers, and our business operations also depend, in part, on the success of these third parties’ own cybersecurity measures. Additionally, we depend upon our employees and independent contractors to appropriately handle confidential data and deploy our IT resources in a safe and secure fashion that does not expose our network systems to security breaches and the loss of data. Accordingly, if any of our cybersecurity systems, processes or policies, or those of any of our manufacturers, logistics providers, customers or independent contractors fail to protect against unauthorized access, sophisticated hacking or terrorism and the mishandling, misuse, or misappropriation of data by employees, contractors or other persons or entities, our ability to conduct our business effectively could be damaged in a number of ways, including:

 

sensitive data regarding our business, including intellectual property, personal information and other confidential and proprietary data, could be stolen;

 

our electronic communications systems, including email and other methods, could be disrupted, and our ability to conduct our business operations could be seriously damaged until such systems can be restored;

 

our ability to process customer orders and electronically deliver products and services could be degraded, and our distribution channels could be disrupted, resulting in delays in revenue recognition, damage to our relationships with customers and prospective customers and damage to our reputation;

 

defects and security vulnerabilities could be introduced into our software, products, network and systems, thereby damaging our reputation and perceived reliability and security of our products and potentially making the systems of our customers vulnerable to data loss and cyber incidents; and

 

personally identifiable data relating to various parties, including end users, employees and business partners could be compromised.

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Should any of the above events occur, we could be subject to significant claims for liability from our customers, employees or others and regulatory investigations or actions from governmental agencies. In addition, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights could be compromised and our reputation and competitive position could be significantly harmed. Any regulatory, contractual or other actions, litigations, investigations, fines, penalties and liabilities relating to any actual or alleged misuse or misappropriation of personal data or other confidential or proprietary information could be significant in terms of monetary exposure and reputational impact and necessitate changes to our business operations that may be disruptive to us. Additionally, we could incur significant costs in order to upgrade our cybersecurity systems, processes, policies and procedures and remediate damages. Consequently, our financial performance and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

If we are unable to obtain, maintain or protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed or we could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce our rights.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws and confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties to protect and enforce our rights to our proprietary technology, all of which offer only limited protection.

In order to protect our proprietary information, we rely in significant part on confidentiality arrangements with our employees, licensees, independent contractors, advisers and customers. These arrangements may not be effective to prevent disclosure of confidential information, including trade secrets, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, if others independently discover our trade secrets, we would not be able to assert trade secret rights against such parties. Effective trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our services are available or where we have employees or independent contractors. The loss or unavailability of trade secret protection could make it easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality. In addition, any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the trade secret and employment laws in any country in which we operate may compromise our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

We also rely on patents to protect certain aspects of our proprietary technology in the United States. The process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. We may choose not to seek patent protection for certain innovations and may choose not to pursue patent protection in certain jurisdictions. Further, we cannot guarantee that any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or that any patents that do issue from such applications will have adequate scope to provide us with a competitive advantage. There is no assurance that all potentially relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found. To the extent that additional patents are issued from our patent applications, which is not certain, third parties may challenge their validity, enforceability or scope, which may result in such patents being narrowed or invalidated. If third parties have prepared and filed patent applications in the United States that also claim technology to which we have rights, we may have to participate in interference proceedings in the United States Patent and Trademark Office to determine priority of invention for patent applications filed before March 16, 2013, or in derivation proceedings to determine inventorship for patent applications filed after such date. In addition, patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years after its effective filing date. Even if patents covering our products are obtained by us or by our licensors, once such patents expire, we may be vulnerable to competition from similar products. Moreover, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with adequate protection or competitive advantages, and, as with any technology, competitors may be able to develop similar or superior technologies to our own now or in the future.

Despite our efforts, the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights, and our ability to police such misappropriation or infringement is uncertain, particularly in countries outside of the United States. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained or are unable to adequately enforce intellectual property protection to develop their own products. We are also restricted from asserting our intellectual property rights against certain customers under our contracts with them.

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Detecting and protecting against the unauthorized use of our products, technology and proprietary rights is expensive, difficult and, in some cases, impossible. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and there is no guarantee that we would be successful. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to protecting their technology or intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property, which could result in a substantial loss of our market share. Even if we did succeed in enforcing our intellectual property through litigation, this may be costly and divert management resources.

Finally, certain of our license agreements with our third-party licensors provide for joint ownership of developments or inventions that we create that are related to the subject matter of the license. Other agreements to which we are subject, including member agreements with standards bodies and research and development consortia, may require us to disclose and/or grant licenses to technology that is related to the subject matter of the standards body or the consortium and included in our contributions to specifications established by these bodies. These agreements could result in third parties having ownership or license rights to important intellectual property that we otherwise may have elected to maintain exclusive ownership of.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

We have not applied for trademark registration for our name and logo in all geographic markets. In those markets where we have applied for trademark registration, failure to secure those registrations could adversely affect our ability to enforce and defend our trademark rights and result in indemnification claims. Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names, as well as the registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names used by our resellers or distributors associated with our products, may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. Any claim of infringement by a third party, even those claims without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against such claim, could divert management attention from our business and could require us to cease use of such intellectual property in certain geographic markets. Over the long term, if we, or our resellers or distributors, are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then our business may be adversely affected.

Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights, or other lawsuits asserted against us, could result in significant costs and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Patent and other intellectual property disputes are common in the broadband infrastructure industry and have resulted in protracted and expensive litigation for many companies. Many companies in the broadband infrastructure industry, including our competitors and other third parties, as well as non-practicing entities, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, which they may use to assert claims of patent infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights against us. From time to time, they have or may in the future also assert such claims against our customers whom we typically indemnify against claims that our products infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of third parties.

As the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur, claims of infringement, misappropriation and other violations of intellectual property rights may increase. Any claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights by a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, distract our management from our business and require us to cease use of such intellectual property, which may impact important elements of our business. In addition, some claims for patent infringement may relate to subcomponents that we purchase from third parties. If these third parties are unable or unwilling to indemnify us for these claims, we could be substantially harmed.

The patent portfolios of most of our competitors are larger than ours. This disparity may increase the risk that our competitors may sue us for patent infringement and may limit our ability to counterclaim for patent infringement or settle through patent cross-licenses. In addition, future assertions of patent rights by third parties, and any resulting litigation, may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. We cannot guarantee that we are not infringing or otherwise violating any third-party intellectual property rights.

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The third-party asserters of intellectual property claims may be unreasonable in their demands, or may simply refuse to settle, which could lead to expensive settlement payments, prolonged periods of litigation and related expenses, additional burdens on employees or other resources, distraction from our business, supply stoppages and lost sales. Moreover, in recent years, individuals and groups that are non-practicing entities, commonly referred to as “patent trolls,” have purchased patents and other intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement in order to extract settlements. In the past, we have received threatening letters or notices and have been the subject of claims that our solutions and underlying technology infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others. Responding to such claims, regardless of their merit, can be time-consuming, costly to defend in litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, damage our reputation and brand, and cause us to incur significant expenses.

An adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay substantial damages including treble damages if we are found to have willfully infringed a third party’s patents; cease making, licensing or using solutions that are alleged to infringe or misappropriate the intellectual property of others; expend additional development resources to attempt to redesign our products or services or otherwise to develop non-infringing technology, which may not be successful; enter into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or intellectual property rights; and indemnify our partners and other third parties. Any damages or royalty obligations we may become subject to as a result of an adverse outcome, and any third-party indemnity we may need to provide, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Royalty or licensing agreements, if required or desirable, may be unavailable on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may require significant royalty payments and other expenditures. Further, there is little or no information publicly available concerning market or fair values for license fees, which can lead to overpayment of license or settlement fees. In addition, some licenses may be non-exclusive, and therefore our competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to us. Suppliers subject to third-party intellectual property claims also may choose or be forced to discontinue or alter their arrangements with us, with little or no advance notice to us. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Unavailability, termination or breach of licenses to third-party software and other intellectual property could materially harm our business.

Many of our products and services include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties, and we otherwise use software and other intellectual property licensed from third parties in our business. We exercise no control over our third-party licensors, and the failure or unsuitability of their software or other intellectual property exposes us to risks that we will have little ability to control. For example, a licensor may have difficulties keeping up with technological changes or may stop supporting the software or other intellectual property that it licenses to us; our licensors may also have the ability to terminate our licenses if the licensed technology becomes the subject of a claim of intellectual property infringement. Also, it will be necessary in the future to renew licenses, expand the scope of existing licenses or seek new licenses, relating to various aspects of these products and services or otherwise relating to our business, which may result in increased license fees. Any new licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, a third party may assert that we or our customers are in breach of the terms of a license, which could, among other things, give such third party the right to terminate a license or seek damages from us, or both. The inability to obtain or maintain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain or maintain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could result in delays in releases of products and services and could otherwise disrupt our business, until equivalent technology can be identified, licensed or developed, if at all, and integrated into our products and services or otherwise in the conduct of our business. Moreover, the inclusion in our products and services of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis may limit our ability to differentiate our products from those of our competitors. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Our products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.

Our products contain software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software that we use. If we combine our software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release portions of the source code of our software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.

Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our products to undesirable conditions, we do not have a formal open source policy in place that gives our developers written guidance on what open source licenses we deem “safe.” Further, even where we believe an open source license may have acceptable conditions, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our informal processes for controlling our use of open source software in our products will be effective or that our compliance with open source licenses, including notice and attribution requirements, are adequate. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our products on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely or commercially reasonable basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code. We also could face infringement claims. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our failure to adequately protect personal data and to comply with related laws and regulations could result in material liability.

A wide variety of provincial, state, national, foreign, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer (including across national boundaries), and other processing of personal data. These data protection and privacy-related laws and regulations are evolving and being tested in courts and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions.

Any failure by us to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or to protect such data, could result in enforcement action against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials, public censure, claims for damages by end customers and other affected persons and entities, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill, and other forms of injunctive or operations-limiting relief, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial performance, and business.

Definitions of personal data and personal information, and requirements relating to the same under applicable laws and regulations within the European Union, the United States, and elsewhere, change frequently and are subject to new and different interpretations by courts and regulators. Because the interpretation and application of laws and other obligations relating to privacy and data protection are uncertain, it is possible that existing or future laws, regulations, and other obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data management practices. We may be required to expend significant resources to modify our products and otherwise adapt to these changes, which we may be unable to do on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and our ability to develop new products and features could be limited. These developments could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if not subject to legal challenge, the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation and inhibit adoption of our products by current and prospective customers.

Failure to comply with governmental laws and regulations could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business is subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies, including agencies responsible for monitoring and enforcing employment and labor laws, workplace safety, product safety, environmental laws, consumer protection laws, anti-bribery laws, import/export controls, federal securities laws and tax laws and regulations. In certain jurisdictions, these regulatory requirements may be more stringent than those in the United States. From time to time, we may receive inquiries from such governmental agencies or we may make voluntary disclosures regarding our compliance with applicable governmental regulations or requirements. Noncompliance with applicable government regulations or requirements could subject us to sanctions, mandatory product recalls, enforcement actions,

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disgorgement of profits, fines, damages, civil and criminal penalties or injunctions. If any governmental sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and an increase in professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may invest in or acquire other businesses, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

As part of our growth strategy, we may make investments in or acquire complementary companies, products or technologies. We do not have experience in making investments in other companies nor have we made any acquisitions to date, and as a result, our ability as an organization to evaluate and/or complete investments or acquire and integrate other companies, products or technologies in a successful manner is unproven. We may not be able to find suitable investment or acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete such investments or acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete investments or acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any investments or acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by our customers, investors and securities analysts.

In addition, investments and acquisitions may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. For example, if we are unsuccessful at integrating any acquisitions or retaining key talent from those acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of the combined company could be materially adversely affected. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel or accurately forecast the financial effects of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such investment or acquisition, each of which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock. The sale of equity or issuance of debt to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. Moreover, if the investment or acquisition becomes impaired, we may be required to take an impairment charge, which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock.

Our international operations may give rise to potentially adverse tax consequences.

We are expanding our international operations and staff to better support our growth into the international markets. We generally conduct our international operations through wholly owned subsidiaries and report our taxable income in various jurisdictions worldwide based upon our business operations in those jurisdictions. Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies contemplate the business flows and future growth into the international markets, and consider the functions, risks and assets of the various entities involved in the intercompany transactions. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions may depend on the application of the tax laws of the various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions, which are required to be computed on an arm’s-length basis pursuant to the intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.

On December 22, 2017, the President signed into law new U.S. federal income tax legislation that contains significant changes to corporate taxation, including the transition of U.S. international taxation to a modified territorial system and the imposition of a one-time transition tax on a deemed repatriation of certain foreign earnings and profits.  The overall impact of this new legislation is uncertain, and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected.  In addition, further changes in the tax laws of foreign jurisdictions could arise, including as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting project undertaken by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, or the OECD. The OECD, which represents a coalition of member countries, has issued recommendations that, in some cases, make substantial changes to numerous long-standing tax positions and principles; many of these changes have been adopted or are under active consideration by OECD members and/or other countries.

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Recent changes to the U.S. tax laws impact the tax treatment of foreign earnings by, among other things, creating limits on the ability of taxpayers to claim and utilize foreign tax credits, imposing minimum effective rates of current tax on certain classes of foreign income, and imposing additional taxes in connection with specified payments to related foreign recipients. We are unable to determine at this time what effect such changes, or others that may be enacted in the future, may have on our business.  Due to our existing, and anticipated expansion of, our international business activities, any changes in the U.S. or foreign taxation of such activities may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use, value added or similar taxes, and we could be subject to liability with respect to past or future sales, which could adversely affect our operating results.

We do not collect sales and use, value added or similar taxes in all jurisdictions in which we have sales, and we have been advised that such taxes are not applicable to our products and services in certain jurisdictions. Sales and use, value added and similar tax laws and rates vary greatly by jurisdiction. Certain jurisdictions in which we do not collect such taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in tax assessments, penalties and interest, to us or our end-customers for the past amounts, and we may be required to collect such taxes in the future. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes from our end-customers, we could be held liable for such costs. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest, or future requirements may adversely affect our operating results.

If we needed to raise additional capital to expand our operations and invest in new products, our failure to do so on favorable terms could reduce our ability to compete and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. However, if we need to raise additional funds to expand our operations and invest in new products, we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise additional equity financing, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests, and the market price of our common stock could decline.

Our business is subject to the risks of fire, power outages, floods and other catastrophic events and to interruption by manmade problems such as terrorism.

Our corporate headquarters and the operations of our key manufacturing vendors, as well as many of our customers, are located in areas exposed to risks of natural disasters such as fires and floods. A significant natural disaster, such as a fire, flood or other catastrophic events such as a disease outbreak, could have a material adverse effect on our or their business, which could in turn materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For example, in the event our manufacturing or logistics abilities are hindered by any of the events discussed above, shipments could be delayed, which could result in missed financial targets, such as revenue and shipment targets, for a particular quarter. Further, if a natural disaster occurs in a region from which we derive a significant portion of our revenue, customers in that region may delay or forego purchases of our products, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in our business or the business of our manufacturers, logistics providers, partners or customers or the economy as a whole. All of the aforementioned risks may be compounded if our disaster recovery plans and those of our manufacturers, logistics providers or partners prove to be inadequate. To the extent that any of the above results in delays or cancellations of customer orders, or delays in the manufacture, deployment or shipment of our products, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects would be adversely affected.

Regulations affecting broadband infrastructure could reduce demand for our products.

Laws and regulations governing the Internet and electronic commerce are emerging but remain largely unsettled, even in the areas where there has been some legislative action. Regulations may focus on, among other things, assessing access or settlement charges, or imposing tariffs or regulations based on the characteristics and quality of products, either of which could restrict our business or increase our cost of doing business. Government regulatory policies are likely to continue to have a major impact on the pricing of existing and new network services and, therefore, are expected to affect demand for those services and the communications products, including our products, supporting those services.

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Any changes to existing laws or the adoption of new regulations by federal or state regulatory authorities or any legal challenges to existing laws or regulations affecting IP networks could materially adversely affect the market for our products. Moreover, customers may require us, or we may otherwise deem it necessary or advisable, to alter our products to address actual or anticipated changes in the regulatory environment. Our inability to alter our products or address any regulatory changes could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

We have outstanding debt that could limit our ability to make expenditures and investments in the conduct of our business and adversely impact our ability to obtain future financing.

We have outstanding debt. Our indebtedness increases the possibility that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay when due the principal of, interest on or other amounts due in respect of our indebtedness. We may be required to dedicate significant cash flows from operations to make such payments, which could limit our ability to make other expenditures and investments in the conduct of our business. Our indebtedness may also reduce our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and market conditions. Our indebtedness also exposes us to interest rate risk, since our debt obligations generally bear interest at variable rates. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in the future to meet future financing needs. If we add new debt, the risks described above could increase.

Our credit facility contains restrictive and financial covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.

Our credit facility contains certain restrictive covenants that either limit our ability to, or require a mandatory prepayment in the event we, incur additional indebtedness and liens, merge with other companies or consummate certain changes of control, acquire other companies, engage in new lines of business, change business locations, make certain investments, make any payments on any subordinated debt, transfer or dispose of assets, amend certain material agreements, and enter into various specified transactions. We, therefore, may not be able to engage in any of the foregoing transactions unless we obtain the consent of our lender or prepay the outstanding amount under the credit facility. The credit facility also contains certain financial covenants and financial reporting requirements. Our obligations under the credit facility are secured by substantially all of our assets, excluding intellectual property and investments in foreign subsidiaries. We may not be able to generate or sustain sufficient cash flow or sales to meet the financial covenants or pay the principal and interest under the credit facility. Furthermore, our future working capital, borrowings or equity financing could be unavailable to repay or refinance the amounts outstanding under the credit facility. In the event of a liquidation, our lender would be repaid all outstanding principal and interest prior to distribution of assets to unsecured creditors, and the holders of our common stock would receive a portion of any liquidation proceeds only if all of our creditors, including our lender, were first repaid in full.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Our results of operations are likely to vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable. If we fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially.

Our results of operations have historically varied from period to period, and we expect that this trend will continue. As a result, you should not rely upon our past financial results for any period as indicators of future performance. Our results of operations in any given period can be influenced by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including the factors described above as well as:

 

changes in our pricing policies, whether initiated by us or as a result of competition;

 

the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operation and expansion of our business;

 

changes in the growth rate of the broadband services market;

 

the actual or rumored timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or customers;

 

our ability to successfully expand our business geographically;

 

insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, including our sole source suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;

 

our inability to fulfill our customers’ orders due to supply chain delays, access to key commodities or technologies or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;

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the cost and possible outcomes of any potential litigation matters;

 

our overall effective tax rate, including impacts caused by any changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and any new legislation or regulatory developments;

 

increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and

 

general economic conditions, both domestically and in foreign markets.

Any one of the factors above or the cumulative effect of several of the factors described above may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other results of operations. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet expectations of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.

An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.

Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 15, 2017.  Given the limited trading history of our common stock, there is a risk that an active trading market for our shares may not be sustained, which could put downward pressure on the market price of our common stock and thereby affect the ability of our stockholders to sell their shares at attractive prices, at the times that they would like to sell them, or at all.

The market price of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors.

The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations. Some of the factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate include:

 

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

volatility in the market price and trading volume of comparable companies;

 

actual or anticipated changes in our earnings or fluctuations in our results of operations or in the expectations of securities analysts;

 

announcements of technological innovations, new products, strategic alliances, or significant agreements by us or by competitive vendors;

 

announcements by our customers regarding significant increases or decreases in capital expenditures;

 

departure of key personnel;

 

litigation involving us or that may be perceived as having an impact on our business;

 

changes in general economic, industry and market conditions and trends;

 

investors’ general perception of us;

 

sales of large blocks of our stock; and

 

announcements regarding further industry consolidation.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Because of the potential volatility of our stock price, we may become the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.

We have broad discretion in the use of our cash reserves and may not use them effectively.

Our management has broad discretion to use our cash reserves and could use our cash reserves in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock.  The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business.  Pending their use, we may invest our cash reserves in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

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If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock or the stock of other companies in our industry, the price of our stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If one or more of the industry analysts covering our business downgrade their evaluations of our stock or the stock of other companies in our industry, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover our stock, we could lose visibility in the market for our stock, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

Because we do not expect to declare any dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, investors in our common stock may never receive a return on their investment.

Although we declared special dividends on five occasions prior to our initial public offering, we do not anticipate that we will declare any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future, and investors should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. Instead, we plan to retain any earnings to maintain and expand our existing operations. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment. As a result, investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

Insiders have substantial control over us, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

As of February 28, 2018, our directors and executive officers and their affiliates beneficially owned, in the aggregate, approximately 74.3% of our outstanding common stock, as disclosed in the beneficial ownership table included in Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As a result, these stockholders could have significant influence over the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, and over the management and affairs of our company. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company and might affect the market price of our common stock.

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares may be sold into the public market in the near future, which could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time after the expiration of the lock-up agreements on June 13, 2018, which were executed in connection with the initial public offering of our common stock. These sales, or the market perception that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. As of February 28, 2018, 75,030,281 shares, or 92.0% of our outstanding shares, are restricted as a result of securities laws or lock-up agreements but will be able to be sold, subject to any applicable volume limitations under federal securities laws with respect to affiliate sales in the near future.

In addition, as of February 28, 2018, there were 15,533,195 shares subject to outstanding options, 404,546 shares subject to outstanding restricted stock unit awards, or RSUs, and an additional 9,362,901 shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans that will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by any applicable vesting requirements, lock-up agreements and Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Moreover, holders of an aggregate of approximately 43,274,870 shares of our common stock as of February 28, 2018, will have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. We also intend to register all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity incentive plans. Once we register these shares, they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the lock-up agreements and the restrictions imposed on our affiliates under Rule 144.

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Anti-takeover provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or delay attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. Our corporate governance documents include provisions:

 

establishing a classified board of directors with staggered three-year terms so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;

 

providing that directors may be removed by stockholders only for cause and only with a vote of the holders of at least 75% of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock;

 

limiting the ability of our stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings and to take action by written consent in lieu of a meeting;

 

requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals for business to be conducted at meetings of our stockholders and for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors;

 

authorizing blank check preferred stock, which could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock; and

 

limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers.

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations with us. Any provision of our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

The existence of the foregoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States are the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. These choice of forum provisions could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a more favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our restated certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and may remain an emerging growth company until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, subject to specified conditions. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted, and intend, to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include being permitted to provide reduced disclosure regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements to hold non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation and golden parachute payments, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to our internal control over financial reporting, and not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements. In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have not included all of the executive compensation related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, companies that have not filed a pending registration statement under the Securities Act, had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we will adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard, provided that we continue to be an emerging growth company. This may make comparison of our financial statements with the financial statements of another public company that is not an emerging growth company, or an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period, difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, we have more than $700 million in market value of our stock held by non-affiliates (and we have been a public company for at least 12 months and have filed one Annual Report on Form 10-K) or we issue more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt securities over a three-year period.

We have elected to rely on certain phase-in provisions of the Nasdaq Stock Market rules, and, as a result, we will not immediately be subject to certain corporate governance requirements otherwise required of Nasdaq-listed companies.

We are currently relying on the phase-in provisions of the Nasdaq rules for certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that we have:

 

a majority of independent directors on our board of directors;

 

an audit committee that is composed entirely of independent directors; and

 

a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors.

Under the phase-in provisions of the Nasdaq rules, a majority of the members of our board of directors must be independent within one year of the date of our initial public offering, and we must comply with the following independence requirements with respect to our audit committee and our compensation committee: (1) one independent member of each committee beginning at the time of our initial public offering, (2) a majority of independent members of each committee within 90 days following the date of our initial public offering and (3) all independent members of each committee within one year of the date of our initial public offering. As of February 28, 2018, only two members of our board of directors had been determined to be independent, only one member of our audit committee had been determined to be independent and only one member of our compensation committee had been determined to be independent. During the phase-in periods, our stockholders will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that comply with Nasdaq’s independence requirements without reliance on the phase-in periods. We will be required to recruit new directors in order to comply with Nasdaq’s independence requirements, and the resultant changes in our board and committee membership may

37


influence our future corporate strategy and operating philosophies and may result in deviations from our current strategy. Additionally, if, during the phase-in periods, we are unable to recruit a sufficient number of new directors who qualify as independent or otherwise comply with Nasdaq rules, we may be subject to delisting by Nasdaq.

Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.

Most members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our management team and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company. Among other things, the Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and results of operations. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire even more employees in the future, which will increase our costs and expenses.

We are currently evaluating our internal controls, including to identify and remediate any deficiencies in those internal controls. We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting that we are unable to remediate before the end of the same fiscal year in which the material weakness is identified, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our auditors are unable to attest to management’s report on the effectiveness of our internal controls, which will be required after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would cause the price of our common stock to decline.

In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

We also expect that being a public company will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors and qualified executive officers.

We estimate that we will incur approximately $2.0 to $3.0 million of incremental annual costs associated with being a publicly traded company, which we expect will be included in general and administrative expenses. However, it is possible that our actual incremental costs of being a publicly traded company will be higher than we currently estimate. In estimating these costs, we took into account expenses related to insurance, legal, accounting and compliance activities.

38


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Facilities

Our corporate headquarters is located in Andover, Massachusetts and consists of approximately 122,000 square feet of space. We own the property constituting our corporate headquarters, subject to an $8.0 million mortgage loan. The annual interest rate on the loan is 3.5%, and the loan is repayable in 60 monthly installments of principal and interest based on a 20-year amortization schedule. The remaining amount of unpaid principal under the loan is due on the maturity date of July 1, 2020. The loan terms include annual affirmative, negative and financial covenants, including a requirement that we maintain a minimum debt service ratio. We were in compliance with all annual covenants of the mortgage loan as of December 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2017, outstanding borrowings under the mortgage loan were $7.3 million.

We lease additional facilities in Lawrence, Massachusetts and Limerick, Ireland that we use for manufacturing, testing, logistics, and customer support. We also lease a facility in Guangzhou, China that we use for manufacturing, testing, logistics, research and development and technical support and a facility in Valencia, Spain that we use primarily for research and development.

We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our current needs. We anticipate expanding our facilities as we add employees and enter new geographic markets. We believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available on acceptable terms as needed to accommodate future growth.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

From time to time, we are a party to various litigation matters and subject to claims that arise in the ordinary course of business including, for example, patent infringement lawsuits by non-practicing entities. In addition, third parties may from time to time assert claims against us in the form of letters and other communications. There is no pending or threatened legal proceeding to which we are a party that, in our opinion, is likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. However, litigation is inherently unpredictable. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can adversely affect us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

39


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “CASA”. Trading of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market commenced on December 15, 2017 in connection with our initial public offering, or IPO. Prior to that time, there was no established public trading market for our common stock. As a result, we have only set forth quarterly information with respect to the high and low prices for our common stock for the period following our IPO.  The following table sets forth on a per share basis, for the period indicated, the high and low sale prices of our common stock as reported by the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth quarter (beginning December 15, 2017)

 

$

17.78

 

 

$

13.25

 

 

Holders of Record

As of February 28, 2018, there were 65 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares are held by brokers and other institution on behalf of stockholders, we are not able to estimate the number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividend Policy

Prior to our initial public offering, we declared special dividends in November 2014, June 2016, December 2016, May 2017 and November 2017. The November 2014 special dividend totaled $27.6 million in cash payments to our stockholders. In connection with the November 2014 special dividend, our board of directors also approved cash payments totaling $2.4 million to be made to holders of our stock options and stock appreciation rights as equitable adjustments to the holders of such instruments in accordance with the provisions of our equity incentive plans. The June 2016 special dividend totaled $43.1 million in cash payments to our stockholders. In connection with the June 2016 special dividend, our board of directors also approved cash payments totaling $6.9 million to be made to holders of our stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units as equitable adjustments to the holders of such instruments in accordance with the provisions of our equity incentive plans. The December 2016 special dividend totaled $171.4 million in cash payments to our stockholders. In connection with the December 2016 special dividend, our board of directors also approved cash payments totaling $28.6 million to be made to holders of our stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units as equitable adjustments to the holders of such instruments in accordance with the provisions of our equity incentive plans. The May 2017 special dividend totaled $87.1 million in cash payments to our stockholders. In connection with the May 2017 special dividend, our board of directors also approved cash payments totaling $12.9 million to be made to holders of our stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units as equitable adjustments to the holders of such instruments in accordance with the provisions of our equity incentive plans. The November 2017 special dividend totaled $43.0 million in cash payments to our stockholders. In connection with the November 2017 special dividend, our board of directors also approved cash payments totaling $7.0 million to be made to holders of our stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units as equitable adjustments to the holders of such instruments in accordance with the provisions of our equity incentive plans.

Although we have declared and paid the special dividends described above, we do not anticipate declaring cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial conditions, future prospects, contractual restrictions and covenants and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our credit facility contains covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends on our capital stock.

40


Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

Set forth below is information regarding shares of capital stock issued by us during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Also included is the consideration received by us for such shares and information relating to the section of the Securities Act, or rule of the Securities and Exchange Commission, under which exemption from registration was claimed.

 

(1)

Under our 2011 Stock Incentive Plan, we granted stock options to purchase an aggregate of 1,260,920 shares of our common stock to employees, directors and consultants, with exercise prices ranging from $11.25 to $12.24 per share, and we issued 76,905 shares of common stock pursuant to the exercise of stock options for aggregate consideration of $247,810.

 

(2)

Under our 2011 Stock Incentive Plan, we granted an aggregate of 191,090 restricted stock units to be settled in shares of our common stock to certain of our employees and we issued 418,330 shares of common stock upon the vesting of restricted stock units.

 

(3)

Under our 2011 Stock Incentive Plan, we granted an aggregate of 110,000 stock appreciation rights to be settled in cash to certain of our employees.

 

(4)

Under our 2003 Stock Incentive Plan, we issued 54,170 shares of common stock upon the exercise of stock options at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.10 per share, for aggregate consideration of $5,417.

None of the foregoing transactions involved any underwriters, underwriting discounts or commissions, or any public offering. The stock options and the common stock issued upon the exercise of such options, and the restricted stock units and the common stock issued upon the vesting of such restricted stock units described in paragraphs (1), (2) and (3) above were issued under our 2011 Stock Incentive Plan in reliance on the exemption provided by Rule 701 promulgated under the Securities Act. The common stock issued upon the exercise of the stock options described in paragraph (4) above was issued under our 2003 Stock Incentive Plan in reliance on the exemption provided by Rule 701 promulgated under the Securities Act. Each of the recipients of securities in these transactions had adequate access, through employment, business or other relationships, to information about us. The sales of these securities were made without any general solicitation or advertising.

Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

Under our equity incentive plans, certain participants may exercise options prior to vesting, subject to a right of a repurchase by us. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 we made no repurchases of unvested shares of our common stock made pursuant to our equity incentive plans as a result of our exercising our rights nor pursuant to any publicly announced plan or program.

 

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The information required by this item with respect to our equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference to the section entitled “Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans” in Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Use of Proceeds

 

On December 19, 2017, we closed our initial public offering of 6,900,000 shares of our common stock, including 900,000 shares of our common stock pursuant to the full exercise by the underwriters of an option to purchase additional shares, at a public offering price of $13.00 per share for an aggregate offering of approximately $89.7 million.  The offer and sale of all of the shares in the offering were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-221658), which was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on December 14, 2017.  Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Barclays Capital Inc. acted as joint book-running managers for the offering, with Raymond James & Associates, Inc., Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, Macquarie Capital (USA) Inc., Northland Securities, Inc. and William Blair & Company, L.L.C. acting as co-managers.  The offering commenced on December 14, 2017 and did not terminate until all of the shares offered had been sold.  

The net offering proceeds to us from the offering, after deducting underwriting discounts of $6.3 million and offering expenses payable by us totaling $4.1 million, were approximately $79.3 million. No offering discounts, commissions or expenses were paid directly or indirectly to any of our directors or officers (or their associates) or persons owning 10.0% or more of any class of our equity securities or to any other affiliates.

41


 

As of December 31, 2017, we had not used any of the net offering proceeds and we have invested the proceeds into an investment portfolio with the primary objective of preserving principal and providing liquidity without significantly increasing risk.  There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on December 15, 2017 pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4).

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our audited financial statements appearing in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2014, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 are derived from audited financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

42


The following selected consolidated financial data below should be read in conjunction with Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” our Consolidated financial statements, and the accompanying notes appearing in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

$

311,896

 

 

$

279,223

 

 

$

247,588

 

 

$

194,358

 

Service

 

 

39,679

 

 

 

36,905

 

 

 

24,862

 

 

 

16,920

 

Total revenue

 

 

351,575

 

 

 

316,128

 

 

 

272,450

 

 

 

211,278

 

Cost of revenue(1):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

 

88,538

 

 

 

89,340

 

 

 

74,349

 

 

 

59,088

 

Service

 

 

4,973

 

 

 

8,477

 

 

 

5,265

 

 

 

5,917

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

93,511

 

 

 

97,817

 

 

 

79,614

 

 

 

65,005

 

Gross profit

 

 

258,064

 

 

 

218,311

 

 

 

192,836

 

 

 

146,273

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development(1)

 

 

60,677

 

 

 

49,210

 

 

 

37,155

 

 

 

25,481

 

Sales and marketing(1)

 

 

39,602

 

 

 

36,114

 

 

 

36,157

 

 

 

21,409

 

General and administrative(1)

 

 

21,563

 

 

 

18,215

 

 

 

16,453

 

 

 

10,346

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

121,842

 

 

 

103,539

 

 

 

89,765

 

 

 

57,236

 

Income from operations

 

 

136,222

 

 

 

114,772

 

 

 

103,071

 

 

 

89,037

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(13,404

)

 

 

921

 

 

 

(1,408

)

 

 

(2,942

)

Income before provision for income taxes

 

 

122,818

 

 

 

115,693

 

 

 

101,663

 

 

 

86,095

 

Provision for income taxes

 

 

34,318

 

 

 

27,025

 

 

 

33,742

 

 

 

26,387

 

Net income

 

$

88,500

 

 

$

88,668

 

 

$

67,921

 

 

$

59,708

 

Cash dividends declared per common share

   or common share equivalent

 

$

1.7576

 

 

$

2.9197

 

 

$

 

 

$

0.3835

 

Net income (loss) attributable to common

   stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

11,849

 

 

$

(35,119

)

 

$

27,302

 

 

$

23,287

 

Diluted

 

$

11,849

 

 

$

(35,119

)

 

$

30,402

 

 

$

23,843

 

Net income (loss) per share attributable

   to common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.34

 

 

$

(1.07

)

 

$

0.86

 

 

$

0.78

 

Diluted

 

$

0.26

 

 

$

(1.07

)

 

$

0.78

 

 

$

0.73

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute

   net income (loss) per share attributable to

   common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

35,359

 

 

 

32,864

 

 

 

31,740

 

 

 

29,983

 

Diluted

 

 

44,972

 

 

 

32,864

 

 

 

38,809

 

 

 

32,683

 

 

(1)

Includes stock-based compensation expense related to stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units granted to employees and non-employee consultants as follows:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Cost of revenue

 

$

306

 

 

$

237

 

 

$

143

 

 

$

161

 

Research and development expense

 

 

2,864

 

 

 

2,306

 

 

 

1,843

 

 

 

852

 

Sales and marketing expense

 

 

1,112

 

 

 

1,147

 

 

 

775

 

 

 

598

 

General and administrative expense

 

 

4,854

 

 

 

4,614

 

 

 

4,560

 

 

 

380

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

9,136

 

 

$

8,304

 

 

$

7,321

 

 

$

1,991

 

43


 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities

 

$

260,820

 

 

$

343,946

 

 

$

92,496

 

 

$

77,155

 

Working capital(1)

 

 

324,710

 

 

 

286,652

 

 

 

162,981

 

 

 

99,237

 

Total assets

 

 

469,697

 

 

 

583,035

 

 

 

283,097

 

 

 

230,815

 

Long-term debt, including current portion,

   net of unamortized debt issuance costs

 

 

297,615

 

 

 

299,751

 

 

 

7,795

 

 

 

 

Total liabilities

 

 

419,541

 

 

 

557,259

 

 

 

103,160

 

 

 

124,636

 

Convertible preferred stock

 

 

 

 

 

97,479

 

 

 

97,479

 

 

 

97,479

 

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

50,156

 

 

 

(71,703

)

 

 

82,458

 

 

 

8,700

 

 

(1)

We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities.

44


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors.”

Overview

We offer solutions for next-generation centralized, distributed and virtualized architectures in cable broadband, fixed-line broadband and wireless networks. Our innovative solutions enable customers to cost-effectively and dynamically increase network speed, add bandwidth capacity and new services for consumers and enterprises, reduce network complexity and reduce operating and capital expenditures. Our solutions include a suite of software-centric infrastructure solutions that allow cable service providers to deliver voice, video and data services over a single platform at multi-gigabit speeds.  

We have created a software-centric, multi-service portfolio that enables a broad range of core and access network functions for fixed and wireless networks. These networks share a common set of core and access network functions that enable network services such as subscriber management, session management, transport security and radio frequency, or RF, management. Our Axyom software architecture allows each of these network functions to be provided and controlled by a distinct segment of software, which can be integrated or combined together in a building block-style fashion with the segments of software responsible for each other network function. This allows us to offer network architectures that can be efficiently tailored to meet each customer’s specific requirements, both as they exist at the time of initial implementation and as they evolve over time. While we initially focused on providing solutions for cable service providers due to our founders’ experience in the cable industry, the commonalities between fixed and wireless network architectures have allowed us to expand our solutions into the wireless market as cable service providers have increasingly sought to add wireless capabilities to their service offerings.

We offer a scalable solution that can meet the evolving bandwidth needs of our customers and their subscribers. Our first installation in a service provider’s network frequently involves deploying our broadband products in only a portion of the provider’s network and with only a fraction of the capacity of our products enabled at the time of initial installation. Over time, our customers have generally expanded the use of our solutions to other areas of their networks to increase network capacity. Capacity expansions are accomplished either by deploying additional systems or line cards, or by our remote enablement of additional channels through the use of software. Sales of additional line cards and software-based capacity expansions generate higher gross margins than our initial hardware-based deployments.

We believe that the shift to software-centric ultra-broadband networks and fixed and wireless network convergence presents us with a compelling market opportunity. We intend to maintain our technological leadership through the enhancement of existing products and the development of new products in both our current and adjacent markets. By investing in research and development, we believe we will be well positioned to continue our rapid growth and take advantage of the large market opportunity across fixed and wireless networks. We also intend to continue to expand our sales and marketing initiatives in key geographies.

We have achieved significant growth in revenue and profitability. Our revenue has increased from $211.3 million in 2014 to $351.6 million in 2017, representing a compound annual growth rate of 18%. Our income from operations has increased from $89.0 million in 2014 to $136.2 million in 2017, representing a compound annual growth rate of 15%. Our solutions are commercially deployed in more than 75 countries by more than 450 customers, including regional service providers as well as some of the world’s largest Tier 1 broadband service providers, serving millions of subscribers.

Our Business Model

We derive revenue from sales of our products and services. The majority of our product revenue is derived from sales of our broadband products, particularly our C100G converged cable access platform, or CCAP, solution. We generate service revenue primarily from sales of maintenance and support services, which end customers typically purchase in conjunction with our products, and, to a lesser extent, from sales of professional services and extended warranty services.

45


Since shipping our first products in 2005, our cumulative end-customer base has grown significantly. Our revenue and installed base of equipment has increased significantly with the introduction of our CCAP solution in 2012 and our Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, or DOCSIS, 3.1 capabilities in 2015, both of which run on our Axyom software platform.

We offer a scalable solution that can meet the evolving bandwidth needs of our customers and their subscribers.

Our sales model focuses on the following key areas:

 

Adding New Customers. With several thousand broadband service providers existing globally, we believe that we have opportunities for growth by acquiring new customers in all of the geographic regions in which we compete. Potential new customers include broadband service providers that provide fixed or wireless services or both. We intend to add new customers over time by continuing to invest in our technology and our sales team to capitalize on these new opportunities. Our sales team works closely with prospective customers to educate them on and demonstrate to them the technical and business merits of our products, including the ability to capture new revenue opportunities and realize cost savings through the use of our broadband solutions. We build relationships with prospective customers at multiple levels and within numerous departments in a customer’s organization and, through the sales process, we strive to be a strategic business partner for our customers. We believe that the technological strengths and capabilities of our broadband solutions and the introduction and implementation of next-generation standards have been and will continue to be an important factor in our ability to add new customers.

 

Expanding Sales to Our Existing Customer Base. Our first installation in a service provider’s network frequently involves deploying our broadband products in only a portion of the provider’s network and with only a fraction of the capacity of our products enabled at the time of initial installation. Over time, our customers have generally expanded the use of our solutions to other areas of their networks to increase network capacity. Capacity expansions are accomplished either by deploying additional systems or line cards, or by our remote enablement of additional channels through the use of software. Sales of additional line cards and software-based capacity expansions generate higher gross margins than our initial hardware-based deployments.

We work with our existing customers to identify expansion and cross-selling opportunities. Existing customers are familiar with and have benefited from the operational and economic benefits of our broadband products, and therefore, sales cycles for existing customers are generally shorter. We believe expansion and cross-selling opportunities with existing customers are significant given their existing and expected infrastructure spend as service providers leverage their investment in our platform to deliver new services to their customers.

Our solutions are commercially deployed in over 75 countries by more than 450 customers. We expect that a substantial portion of our future sales will be follow-on sales to existing customers. During the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, sales to existing customers represented 97%, 74% and 63% of our revenue, respectively. Our business and results of operations will depend on our ability to sell additional products to our existing customer base.

 

Selling New Products. Our results of operations have been, and we believe will continue to be, affected by our ability to quickly and effectively design and sell products with improved performance and increased functionality. As networks and standards for broadband solutions evolve, we aim to deliver new products prior to our competition. For example, the introduction of our DOCSIS 3.0 broadband solution, our CCAP solution and our DOCSIS 3.1 capabilities allowed us to obtain new customers, increase our sales to existing customers, increase our revenue and capture market share. We aim to increase our revenue by enabling customers to transition from previously deployed data and video solutions to our integrated CCAP solutions, which can incorporate DOCSIS 3.1 standards as well as our remote-PHY distributed access solution. Over the last several years, we have made substantial investments to extend our Axyom software platform to serve the wireless market, and we expect to generate increased revenue in the future from sales of wireless solutions to new and existing customers. We have also developed solutions for telecommunications service providers. Our ability to sustain our revenue growth will depend, in part, upon our sales of new products.

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We market and sell our products and services through our direct global sales force, supported by sales agents, and through resellers. A majority of our revenue is derived from direct sales, which generate higher gross margins than sales made through resellers. Our sales organization includes systems engineers with deep technical expertise that provide pre-sales technical support. These systems engineers also assist with post-sales support. Our resellers receive an order from an end customer prior to placing an order with us, and we confirm the identification of or are aware of the end customer prior to accepting such orders. We use sales agents to assist our direct global sales force in the sales process with certain customers primarily located in the Latin America and Asia-Pacific regions. If a sales agent is engaged in the sales process, we receive the order directly from and sell the products and services directly to the end customer, and we pay a commission to the sales agent, calculated as a percentage of the related customer payment.

Each of our sales teams is responsible for a geographic territory and/or has responsibility for a number of major direct end-customer accounts. We have a diverse, global customer base and our revenue by geographic region fluctuates from period to period based on the timing of customer projects. The percentages of our revenue derived from customers in each geographic region were as follows:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenue by geographic region:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North America

 

 

57.4

%

 

 

58.2

%

 

 

20.0

%

Latin America

 

 

11.5

%

 

 

15.0

%

 

 

32.1

%

Europe, Middle East and Africa

 

 

17.5

%

 

 

14.3

%

 

 

27.8

%

Asia-Pacific

 

 

13.6

%

 

 

12.5

%

 

 

20.1

%

Total

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

100.0

%

 

Key Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenue

We generate product revenue from sales of our software-centric broadband products, including our CCAP solution and our DOCSIS 3.1 capabilities. The majority of our revenue is derived from sales of our CCAP solutions, particularly our C100G CCAP. We also generate product revenue from sales of additional line cards and software-based capacity expansions.

We generate service revenue from sales of initial maintenance and support services contracts, which are typically purchased by end customers in conjunction with our products, and from our customers’ subsequent annual renewals of those contracts. We offer maintenance and support services under renewable, fee-based contracts, which include telephone support and unspecified software upgrades and updates provided on a when-and-if-available basis. To a lesser extent, we generate service revenue from sales of professional services, such as installation and configuration, and extended warranty services.

The sale of our software-centric broadband products generally includes a 90-day warranty on the software and a one-year warranty on the hardware component of the products, which includes repair or replacement of the applicable hardware. We record a warranty accrual for the initial software and hardware warranty included with our product sales and do not defer revenue. In addition, in conjunction with customers’ renewals of maintenance and support services contracts, we offer an extended warranty for periods typically of one to three years for agreed-upon fees, which we record as service revenue.

Cost of Revenue

Our cost of product revenue consists primarily of the costs of procuring goods, such as chassis and line cards embedded with FPGAs, from our contract manufacturers and other suppliers. In addition, cost of product revenue includes salary and benefit expenses, including stock-based compensation, for manufacturing and supply-chain management personnel, allocated facilities-related costs, estimated warranty costs, third-party logistics costs, and estimated costs associated with excess and obsolete inventory.

Our cost of service revenue includes salary and benefit expenses, including stock-based compensation, for our maintenance and support services and professional services personnel, fees incurred for subcontracted professional services provided to our customers, and allocated facilities-related costs.

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Gross Profit

Our product gross profit and gross margin have been, and may in the future be, influenced by several factors, including changes in the volume of our software-centric broadband products sold, product configuration, sales of capacity expansions, geographic location of our customers, pricing due to competitive pressure, estimated warranty costs, inventory obsolescence, and favorable and unfavorable changes in inventory production volume and component costs. As some products mature, the average selling prices of those products may decline. Our service gross profit and gross margin have been, and may in the future be, influenced by the amount and timing of renewals of maintenance and support services contracts by customers, pricing due to competitive pressure and, to a lesser extent, the amount of professional services ordered by customers and performed by us. We expect that our gross margin will remain relatively stable in the near term, subject to quarter-to-quarter fluctuation, due to changes in the amount of our software-centric broadband products and capacity expansions sold.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of salary and benefit expenses, including stock-based compensation, for our employees engaged in research, design and development activities. Research and development expenses also include project-specific engineering services purchased from external vendors, prototype costs, depreciation expense, amortization of purchased intellectual property, allocated facilities-related costs and travel expenses.

We expect that our research and development costs will continue to increase in absolute dollars while remaining relatively stable as a percentage of revenue in the near term as we continue to make significant investments to enhance our software-centric broadband products and develop new software-centric broadband products and technologies, including our new wireless solutions.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

Sales and marketing expenses include salary and benefit expenses, including stock-based compensation, for employees and costs for contractors engaged in sales and marketing activities. Sales and marketing expenses also include commissions, calculated as a percentage of the related customer payment, to sales agents that assist us in the sales process with certain customers primarily located in the Latin America and Asia-Pacific regions. These sales agent commissions fluctuate from period to period based on the amount and timing of sales to the customers subject to sales agent commissions. Sales and marketing expenses also include marketing activities, such as trade shows, marketing programs and promotional materials, as well as allocated facilities-related costs. We are also establishing a new sales force to sell and undertake new marketing programs to promote our new wireless solutions.

We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase in absolute dollars while remaining relatively stable as a percentage of revenue in the near term as we continue to make investments in our sales and marketing organizations and expand our marketing programs and efforts to increase the market awareness and sales of our products and services.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses include salary and benefit expenses, including stock-based compensation, for employees engaged in general and administrative activities, as well as professional service fees, allocated facilities-related costs, insurance, travel and bad debt expenses related to accounts receivable.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in absolute dollars while remaining relatively stable as a percentage of revenue in the near term primarily due to our continued growth and the increased cost associated with being a public company.

48


Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net consists of interest income from our investments in short-term financial instruments, such as certificates of deposit, money market mutual funds and commercial paper, and interest expense associated with our term loan facility, the mortgage on our corporate office and debt maintenance costs related to our revolving credit facility. Other income (expense), net also includes realized and unrealized gains and losses from foreign currency transactions. We hedge certain significant transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, and we expect to continue to do so to minimize our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations.

Provision for Income Taxes

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and the foreign jurisdictions in which we do business. These foreign jurisdictions have statutory tax rates different from those in the United States. Our effective tax rates will vary depending on the relative proportion of foreign to U.S. income, the utilization of foreign tax credits and research and development tax credits, changes in corporate structure, the amount and timing of certain employee stock-based compensation transactions, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and changes in tax laws and interpretations. We plan to regularly assess the likelihood of outcomes that could result from the examination of our tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and other tax authorities to determine the adequacy of our income tax reserves and expense. Should actual events or results differ from our then-current expectations, charges or credits to our provision for income taxes may become necessary. Any such adjustments could have a significant effect on our results of operations.

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the TCJA, was enacted which, among other things, lowered the U.S. corporate income tax rate to 21% from 35% and established a modified territorial system requiring a mandatory deemed repatriation tax on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries. Beginning in 2018, the TCJA also requires a minimum tax on certain future earnings generated by foreign subsidiaries while providing for future tax-free repatriation of such earnings through a 100% dividends-received deduction. While the reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate under the TCJA is not effective until 2018, under GAAP, changes in tax rates are accounted for in the period enacted. Therefore, in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 740, Income Taxes, and Staff Accounting Bulletin 118, we recognized a provisional income tax charge in the fourth quarter of 2017 of $14.1 million related to the TCJA based on our initial analysis using available information and estimates. The provisional charge is comprised of $10.0 million related to the one-time deemed repatriation of accumulated earnings of foreign subsidiaries and related withholding taxes and $4.1 million related primarily to the remeasurement of net deferred tax assets as a result of the reduction in the U.S. corporate income tax rate effected by the TCJA. As a result, applicable U.S. corporate and foreign income taxes have been provided on substantially all of our accumulated earnings of foreign subsidiaries previously considered indefinitely reinvested. Given the significant complexity of the TCJA, anticipated guidance from the U.S. Treasury Department about implementing the TCJA and the potential for additional guidance from the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, or the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or the FASB, related to the TCJA or additional information becoming available, our provisional income tax charge may be adjusted during 2018 and is expected to be finalized no later than the fourth quarter of 2018. Other provisions of the TCJA that impact future tax years are still being assessed.

In the third quarter of 2016, we began the process of restructuring our international operations, which over time is expected to reduce our effective tax rate; however, due to the timing of this restructuring program, the impact on our effective tax rate in 2016 was not fully realized. In addition, our 2016 effective tax rate and provision for income taxes reflected a non-recurring tax benefit for equitable adjustment payments to holders of our stock-based awards in connection with dividends declared by our board of directors. Our 2017 effective tax rate reflects the benefit of our international restructuring, and charges related to the TCJA, as well as a non-recurring tax benefit for equitable adjustment payments to holders of our stock based awards in connection with dividends declared by our board of directors. We expect that the favorable impact of the restructuring of our international operations on our effective tax rates will continue in future periods, subject to period to period variability related to the geographic distribution of earnings in foreign jurisdictions with statutory tax rates different from those in the United States.

49


Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our consolidated results of operations in dollar amounts and as percentage of total revenue for the periods shown:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

$

311,896

 

 

$

279,223

 

 

$

247,588

 

Service

 

 

39,679

 

 

 

36,905

 

 

 

24,862

 

Total revenue

 

 

351,575

 

 

 

316,128

 

 

 

272,450

 

Cost of revenue(1):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

 

88,538

 

 

 

89,340

 

 

 

74,349

 

Service

 

 

4,973

 

 

 

8,477

 

 

 

5,265

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

93,511

 

 

 

97,817

 

 

 

79,614

 

Gross profit

 

 

258,064

 

 

 

218,311

 

 

 

192,836

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development(1)

 

 

60,677

 

 

 

49,210

 

 

 

37,155

 

Sales and marketing(1)

 

 

39,602

 

 

 

36,114

 

 

 

36,157

 

General and administrative(1)

 

 

21,563

 

 

 

18,215

 

 

 

16,453

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

121,842

 

 

 

103,539

 

 

 

89,765

 

Income from operations

 

 

136,222

 

 

 

114,772

 

 

 

103,071

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(13,404

)

 

 

921

 

 

 

(1,408

)

Income before provision for income taxes

 

 

122,818

 

 

 

115,693

 

 

 

101,663

 

Provision for income taxes

 

 

34,318

 

 

 

27,025

 

 

 

33,742

 

Net income

 

$

88,500

 

 

$

88,668

 

 

$

67,921

 

 

(1)

Includes stock-based compensation expense related to stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units granted to employees and non-employee consultants as follows:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Cost of revenue