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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM           TO

Commission File Number 001-38324

 

Casa Systems, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

75-3108867

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

100 Old River Road

Andover, Massachusetts

01810

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (978) 688-6706

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

CASA

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Small reporting company 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of Common Stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2020 was approximately $126.4 million.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of January 29, 2021 was 84,009,729.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2021 Annual Stockholders’ Meeting expected to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the Registrant’s fiscal year end of December 31, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

7

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

20

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

46

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

46

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

46

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

47

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity
Securities

 

48

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

50

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

51

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

69

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

71

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

114

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

114

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

114

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

115

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

115

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

115

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

115

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

115

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

116

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

118

 

 

 


 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “might,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “would,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Some of the key factors that could cause actual results to differ from our expectations include:

 

our ability to anticipate technological shifts;

 

our ability to generate positive returns on our research and development;

 

changes in the rate of communications service providers’, or CSPs’, deployment of, and investment in, ultra-broadband network capabilities;

 

the lack of predictability of revenue due to lengthy sales cycles and the volatility in capital expenditure budgets of CSPs;

 

our ability to maintain and expand operating profit and net income;

 

the sufficiency of our cash resources and needs for additional financing;

 

our ability to further penetrate our existing customer base and obtain new customers;

 

changes in our pricing policies, whether initiated by us or as a result of competition;

 

the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operation and expansion of our business;

 

the extent of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company, which is highly uncertain and will depend on future developments;

 

the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our suppliers, our business operations and our customers;

 

the actual or rumored timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or customers;

 

our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally, including our ability to maintain the synergies we have realized from our acquisition of NetComm Wireless Limited, or NetComm;

 

insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;

 

our inability to fulfill our customers’ orders due to supply chain delays, access to key commodities or technologies or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;

 

future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;

 

stock-based compensation expense;

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our overall effective tax rate, including impacts caused by the relative proportion of foreign to U.S. income, the amount and timing of certain employee stock-based compensation transactions, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and any new legislation or regulatory developments;

 

increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

 

the costs and possible outcomes of any legal actions or proceedings against us, including those described under “Part I, Item 3–Legal Proceedings”;

 

general economic conditions, both domestically and in foreign markets;

 

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products; and

 

our use of proceeds from our initial public offering.

Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.


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SUMMARY OF THE MATERIAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OUR BUSINESS

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:

 

We believe the CSP industry is in the early stages of a major architectural shift toward the virtualization and cloudification of networks and the use of networks with distributed architectures. If the architectural shift does not occur, if it does not occur at the pace we predict, or if the products and services we have developed are not attractive to our customers after such shift takes place, our revenues could decline.

 

If we do not successfully anticipate technological shifts, market needs and opportunities, and develop new products and product enhancements that meet those technological shifts, needs and opportunities, we may not be able to compete effectively.

 

Our success depends in large part on CSPs’ continued deployment of, and investment in, ultra-broadband network capabilities and technologies that make use of our solutions.

 

Our continued growth depends on the pace and level of our customers’ investment in 5G and 5G-related technologies, as well as our success in selling our 5G products to our existing and new customers.

 

We face intense competition, including from larger, well-established companies, and we may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position.

 

Timing of large orders and seasonality in our revenue may cause our quarterly revenue and results of operations to fluctuate and possibly decline materially from quarter to quarter.

 

Our sales to the CSP market are volatile and our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable. As a result, our sales and revenue are difficult to predict and may vary substantially from period to period, which may cause our revenue and results of operations to fluctuate and possibly decline significantly.

 

We expect certain of our customers will continue to represent a substantial portion of our revenue.

 

If we are unable to sell additional products to our existing customers, our revenue will be adversely affected.

 

Our converged cable access platform, or CCAP, solutions currently represent a significant percentage of our product sales; our business would be adversely affected in the event we are unable to sell one or more of our CCAP products.

 

Our products are necessary for the operation of our customers’ broadband service operations. Product quality problems, warranty claims, services disruptions, or other defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our products or services could harm our reputation and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

Because we depend on third-party manufacturers to build our hardware, we are susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from delivering customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales and customers.

 

Because some of the key components in our products come from limited sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages or supply changes, which could disrupt or delay our scheduled product deliveries to our customers and may result in the loss of sales and customers.

 

We have outstanding debt that could limit our ability to make expenditures and investments in the conduct of our business and adversely impact our ability to obtain future financing.

 

Litigation could distract management, increase our expenses or subject us to material money damages and other remedies.

 

The coronavirus outbreak could negatively impact our operations and have an adverse effect on our revenues and/or results of operations.

 

The coronavirus outbreak has resulted in an increase in demand for certain of our solutions, which may subside or decrease when the pandemic ends.

 

Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights, or other lawsuits asserted against us, could result in significant costs and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Our indemnification obligations to our customers and business partners for claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation are relatively broad in scope and could result in significant liability for us.

 

Our results of operations are likely to vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable. If we fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially.

 

The market price of our common stock has been volatile in the past and may be volatile in the future, which could result in substantial losses for investors.

 

Insiders have substantial control over us, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

 

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares may be sold into the public market at any time, which could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

 

Anti-takeover provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

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PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

Our solutions enable our CSP customers to offer high bandwidth data services to their subscribers. We help our customers transform and expand their public and private high-speed data and multi-service communications networks with physical, virtual and cloud-native 5G infrastructure and customer premise networking equipment, so that they can meet the growing demand for bandwidth and new services. Our core and edge convergence technology enables CSPs and enterprises to cost-effectively and dynamically increase network speed, add bandwidth capacity and new services, reduce network complexity, and reduce operating and capital expenditures regardless of access technology.

Our solutions are commercially deployed in over 70 countries by more than 475 customers, including regional service providers as well as some of the world’s largest Tier 1 CSPs, serving millions of subscribers. Our principal customers include Charter Communications, Rogers, Videotron, T-Mobile, Verizon, AT&T, Bell Canada, Cable One, Mediacom Windstream and Lumen in North America; Televisa/IZZI Mexico, Megacable Mexico, Cablevision Argentina, Claro Brazil, America Móvil and Claro Colombia in Latin America; Liberty Global, Vodafone and DNA Oyj in Europe; and NBN, SCSK Corporation, Jupiter Communications, Beijing Gehua CATV Networks, China Mobile, Softbank, Kbro and CNS in Asia-Pacific.

Our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 was $393.2 million, $282.3 million and $297.1 million, respectively. Our net income (loss) for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 was $24.8 million, ($48.2) million and $73.0 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, our total assets were $493.0 million and $444.3 million, respectively.

Industry Trends that Drive our Growth

Annual Increase in Demand for Bandwidth

Demand for both downstream and upstream bandwidth from consumers and enterprises has grown substantially and is expected to continue to increase. Key drivers of increased bandwidth demand include:

 

more users with more connected devices and applications;

 

more time spent online by users;

 

increased use of bandwidth-intensive streaming media services, such as Amazon Prime Video, Netflix, Hulu and YouTube; cloud applications, such as iCloud, Office 365/OneDrive, and Dropbox; and augmented and virtual reality applications;

 

Internet of Things, or IoT, solutions, as already seen in connected homes, businesses and industries; connected devices such as Amazon Alexa or Google Assistant; machine-to-machine connectivity; car connectivity; and smart cities;

 

growth in online, interactive gaming;

 

backhaul requirements of wireless service providers, including new entrants into the wireless space such as multiple system operators, or MSOs;

 

the increase in data consumption by enterprises with strict latency requirements on mission-critical and public safety-related applications;

 

increasing need for greater uplink bandwidth from home or office to the cloud; and

 

increased network data traffic as subscribers work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Transformation of Communications Network Infrastructure

To meet the growing demand for utility-grade broadband connectivity, service providers are undertaking a significant transformation in network architecture from the core of the network all the way through to the customer premise equipment. Three key trends are evident in this transformation and, we believe, are important for our growth: densification, network convergence, and cloudification.

 

Densification. Increasing demand for bandwidth and user expectations for ubiquitous, seamless and reliable connectivity require the addition of more access points at the network edge and at customer premises for users to connect to broadband networks, also known as network densification. As a result, CSPs across all access technologies are shifting from centralized to more distributed architectures. Densification requires extending network connectivity and distributing access aggregation solutions closer to end users. For cable operators this entails deploying more access aggregation nodes and reducing the size of service groups per node. For wireless operators, particularly in 5G, this will lead to an emphasis on small, versus traditional macro, cells in new network deployments.

 

Network Convergence. Traditionally service providers have deployed separate, siloed networks to deliver both fixed (cable, fiber or copper DSL) and mobile broadband to their subscribers. To meet the demands of next generation networks and to realize greater cost efficiencies in network deployment and operation, service providers are focused on converging these siloed fixed and mobile core networks into a single converged 5G Core. The 5G Core will be the heart of the network and act as an anchor point for multi-access technologies to deliver a seamless service experience across fixed and wireless access technologies. 3GPP, the global wireless standards body, has defined a new 5G Core architecture that supports service delivery over wireless, fixed or converged networks.

 

Network virtualization and Cloudification (“Networking as a Service”). Increased consumption of video and other high-bandwidth applications that demand low latency are forcing CSPs to fundamentally rethink their data networks. Network virtualization, in which network software is decoupled from dedicated servers and re-deployed on commodity hardware, was a first step in transforming networks. Virtualization enables several significant benefits to service providers, such as increased operational efficiency, upgradability, configuration flexibility, service agility and scalability. But to meet 5G specifications that call for features like software-defined networking, multi-access mobile edge computing, and rapid deployment of network slices additional network architecture modification will be required. We believe that network cloudification is the path forward to solve this challenge, where network functions will be hosted in edge data centers with access delivered through the Internet (public cloud) or via private networks (private cloud). We believe that cloudified networks will provide better support for scalability, agility, innovation, and low latency application and service delivery, as well as the potential for significant cost savings.

.

Adoption of 5G

 

Fifth Generation, or 5G, Mobile Networks. 5G, the latest generation of cellular technology, is expected to change the way people live and work. 5G will enable a significant increase in the amount of data transmitted over wireless networks due to more available bandwidth and advanced antenna technology. Engineered to provide speeds higher than 2 Gbps, 5G will also offer improved capacity, scale, latency and reliability. In upgrading to 5G, CSPs will require new core and access infrastructure. By 2026, some estimates predict that 60% of the world’s population will be covered by 5G networks, and 5G subscriptions are forecast to grow to 3.5 billion.1 As a result, we believe that demand from our existing and new customers for our 5G core, access infrastructure and customer premise devices will be an important driver of our growth for the next several years.

 

1 

Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2020

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5G Fixed Wireless Access, or FWA, likely to become mainstream. A key component of 5G networks will be the promotion of FWA to a more mainstream broadband access medium. FWA services use the mobile network to deliver high-speed fixed broadband connections in areas where there may not be existing high-speed fixed broadband services and where it may not be feasible or cost-effective to deploy other high-speed access technologies such as fixed-line DSL, hybrid fiber coaxial cable, and fiber-to-the-premise. While FWA is not a new broadband technology, until recently the technology was unable to replicate the speed and reliability of fiber broadband. As a result, its deployment was mainly limited to remote communities in under-served rural areas. However, with the introduction of 5G, breakthroughs in FWA technology, and access to millimeter wave spectrum, these technical limitations no longer exist. FWA now has the potential to move from a niche access technology alternative in rural markets to a more mainstream access medium that includes residential suburban and urban markets, as well as enterprise campuses.

Market Opportunity

We believe that our products are well suited to address these trends and accordingly present us with a significant market opportunity across all access technologies. Historically, we have generated the significant majority of our revenue from the cable market with our converged cable access platform, or CCAP. However, since 2019 we have become more diversified as a result of our acquisition of NetComm and the introduction of solutions for wireless and fixed-line broadband networks. We believe that this has expanded our total addressable market from approximately $1.2 billion in 2019 to $35 billion in 2023.2

We expect to continue to generate revenue in the future from growth in the cable market and increased revenue from sales of both wireless and fixed-line broadband solutions to new and existing customers. We believe there is an opportunity for us to take new market share as fixed and wireless networks continue to converge.

Key Benefits of Our Solutions

Highly Flexible, Service-Oriented, Cloud-Native Architecture

Our multi-service broadband platform, Axyom, is at the heart of all of our core network infrastructure products.  Axyom is a web scale solution based on a distributed micro-service framework. The Axyom Software Platform includes Casa Systems’ virtual software workloads and the software that manages those micro-services. The Axyom software architecture includes virtual network functions (or VNFs) for all CSPs – mobile, fixed, cable and converged. Casa’s VNFs are developed from the ground up using cloud native principles to not only ensure scalability and flexibility but to ensure that the Axyom VNFs are optimized for the virtual computing environment in which they will run.

 

2 

Gartner, Communications Service Provider Operational Technology (2018); ABI Research, Mobile Packet Core VNFs and PNFs Market Data; and Dell' Orro Group: Broadband Access Five Year Forecast report (2019); SNS Research, 5G for FWA 2017-2030

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The Axyom software platform offers a large catalogue of ultrabroadband services, while the Axyom Virtual Management Controller (or VMC) provides life-cycle VNF Management, element management system functions and Northbound interfaces to Network Function Virtualization (or NFV) Orchestrators and SDN Controllers. With the ability to support multiple application level KPIs, the VMC provides the control and visibility needed to orchestrate large numbers of VNFs instances running simultaneously and to manage them through their lifecycle.

 

 

Each Casa VNF is designed around the following design principles:

 

Supports stateless processing – Axyom VNFs are designed to use a centralized in-memory data store for state and subscriber/session information.

 

Can be orchestrated – Axyom VNFs have been integrated with several industry leading orchestration solutions, such as NetCracker, HP Enterprise and Amdocs.

 

Composed of microservices – Casa’s microservices operate at web-scale and can be individually managed. They include core microservices that implement business logic and support microservices that support all VNFs. Overall Axyom microservices are designed to be self-contained so that they can be individually upgraded and also chained clustered into VNFs and services. This cloud native approach provides maximum flexibility and operational efficiency

 

Supports convergence solutions – Many service providers serve a combination of mobile, fixed and cable broadband subscribers. The Axyom Software Platform not only delivers optimized solutions specific to mobile, fixed and cable broadband networks, but Axyom is also designed to support converged solutions. Casa also provides microservices that can share a common User Plane Function (UPF) in a multi-access environment, capabilities that provide service providers with common and superior resource management.

 

Allows location independence – Casa’s core network solutions are disaggregated, allowing control and user plane compute resources to be located in the right place for specific use cases. As an example, if the goal is low latency, Axyom allows the user plane VNF to be located on an edge server.

 

Enables deployment flexibility – the Axyom Software Platform provides flexibility since it allows service providers to transition from current monolithic, legacy solutions to Axyom VNFs that can be run on bare metal or in virtual environments, either virtual machines or containers.

End-to-End Products on a Converged Core and Multi-Access Intelligent Edge

We offer a full end-to-end portfolio of all-access broadband network solutions that extend from a cloud-native, converged network core to the customer premises. Our products help CSPs deploy more capacity at the network edge, closer to where end users and devices are accessing the network, thereby increasing available bandwidth and reducing latency to improve quality of service. In addition, our converged network core supports wireline and wireless access and avoids separate cores for each access type with overlapping functions (subscriber management, session management, transport security, access aggregation and radio frequency, or RF, management) within the network. This enables operators to reduce long-term capital expenditures and operating expenses. Our convergence solutions may also enable operators to more consistently deliver services and execute policy across different access types.

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Ability to Upgrade Networks Remotely with Rapid, Seamless Addition of Bandwidth Capacity

We designed our programmable architecture to enable rapid and seamless expansion of network capacity with the purchase of additional software licenses. This flexible approach helps CSPs respond to increased customer demands with rapid bandwidth and service provisioning.

Additionally, our programmable architecture allows us to deploy technology updates to our customers remotely without the expense, disruption or network downtime caused by hardware replacements or field visits by personnel, while minimizing network downtime. We can remotely implement additional features or capacity in order to scale our solutions to meet the needs of our customers as they look to broaden the use and capabilities of our solutions. Similarly, we are often able to troubleshoot and assist our customers with technical issues through seamless software updates.

Reduced Network Complexity and Lower Total Cost of Ownership

Our converged software platform allows CSPs to significantly reduce the complexity, footprint requirements and costs of their networks by reducing parallel and otherwise redundant network architecture. The large capacity increases that our solutions enable, and the ability of our solutions to deliver broadband services over a converged core, translates to fewer pieces of equipment in the network and lower energy usage, operating costs and capital expenditures.

Our Growth Strategy

The key elements of our growth strategy are:

Continue to Innovate and Extend Technology Leadership Through R&D Investment

We believe that we offer market-leading broadband infrastructure solutions today. We intend to continue to enhance our existing solutions and develop new solutions in both our current and adjacent markets. For example, we have invested in and launched distributed access architecture solutions to allow our cable customers to densify their networks, providing higher bandwidth, which enhances user experience. Additionally, we have been investing in our core and access solutions for 4G/LTE and 5G wireless networks.

Further Penetrate Existing Customers

Our customers often deploy our solutions in a specific region or for a specific application, which may only account for a portion of their overall network infrastructure needs. We plan to expand our footprint within the networks of existing customers as they realize the technological and financial benefits of our solutions, as well as sell our new solutions to them as they offer new broadband services to their subscribers.

Expand our Customer Base by Expanding the Breadth of Solutions Sold to Customers

We intend to sell additional solutions to our growing installed base of CSPs, particularly as they increasingly offer converged services to their subscribers. We have invested in developing a cloud-native platform that allows us to rapidly provide new applications and services to our customers. While we initially focused on providing solutions for cable service providers due to our founders’ experience in the cable industry, the commonalities between fixed and wireless network architectures have allowed us to expand our solutions into the fixed telco and wireless markets. Our fixed telco and wireless solutions have been purchased by several customers, including Tier 1 network operators globally.

Invest in Our Platform through Selective Acquisitions

We may selectively pursue acquisitions that enhance our existing platform capabilities and are consistent with our overall growth strategy. For example, on July 1, 2019, we acquired NetComm for cash consideration of $162.0 million Australian dollars, or AUD ($112.7 million United States dollars, or USD, based on an exchange rate of USD $0.700 per AUD $1.00 on July 1, 2019). This acquisition has enabled us to expand our customer base, enhance our global footprint, extend our product portfolio to the far edge of the network, and further diversify our revenue sources.

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Solutions and Technology

We offer end-to-end cloud-native, virtual, physical and distributed infrastructure and customer premise network solutions that enable our customers to provide fixed and wireless broadband services to consumers and enterprises.

 

 

Wireless

Network Core

 

Virtual Evolved Packet Core (or vEPC). Virtualizing the LTE EPC allows service providers to reduce network operating costs, improve network efficiency and deploy new services faster. Built from the ground up, our vEPC is optimized for virtualized environments and implements control and user plane separation (or CUPS). It can be deployed stand alone or in conjunction with our other core network products, such as our Security and Small Cell Gateways.

 

5G Core. We built our 5G core, converged to support fixed and wireless networks, to help service providers implement the shift from a single, one-size-fits-all core network toward a core that provides different logical networks (or “slices”) for different traffic requirements to support new use cases, including IoT, Enhanced Mobile Broadband, and Mission Critical Services. Our 5G core delivers several important features including:

 

o

higher Gbps per vCPU;

 

o

a solution deployable in containers with virtual machines, or VMs, or bare metal;

 

o

location-independent placement of the control and user plane in a CUPS architecture;

 

o

a smooth migration from 4G to 5G with efficient internal messaging between 4G and 5G network components; and

 

o

network slicing in a service-based architecture.

 

Other elements of our core infrastructure network solutions include our Security Gateway, which enables secure encrypted access for subscribers roaming between trusted and untrusted networks, while providing high levels of density and performance, and our Wireless Gateway, which enables routing and security functions as well as traffic management, to provide secure connectivity for wireless endpoints and to enable broadband services such as LTE over Wi-Fi, including Wi-Fi calling.

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Small Cell solutions

 

Apex family of Small Cells. Our portfolio of indoor and outdoor Apex small cell solutions consists of remotely deployable access points that provide cellular connectivity services at the network edge in conjunction with transport security functions to address coverage and capacity challenges. These solutions allow CSPs to more cost-effectively densify their networks while simultaneously improving coverage and enhancing throughput. Our small cell portfolio includes our:

 

o

Lifestyle residential small cell, the Apex Pebble, which uses the user’s broadband connection rather than a cell tower connection to provide wireless service in areas outside of the operator’s coverage areas. We believe that our Apex Pebble offers unique features that include:

 

attractive design that is intended to drive better acceptance by subscribers and thereby provide better RF coverage than utilitarian-looking small cells that are likely to be hidden away in places that reduce RF propagation; and

 

untethered Wi-Fi backhaul option, versus the ethernet backhaul requirement in comparable traditional femtocells, which allows a user to place the device anywhere in his or her home where Wi-Fi is available without running or connecting additional cables to a home router.

 

o

Apex enterprise small cell with 4G radio capability, which supports two LTE carriers, in a small form factor.

 

o

Apex Strand solution, which is designed for both MSOs and mobile network operators, supports two LTE carriers (licensed LTE bands or citizens band radio service, or CBRS), and takes advantage of existing hybrid-fiber cable, or HFC, strand to help solve the power, backhaul and siting issues that accompany large-scale small cell deployments.

 

o

5G indoor small cell, which offers support for licensed LTE/5G bands and eventually CBRS and C-Band and is designed for environments with a large number of subscribers or where a larger coverage area is required. Our 5G indoor small cell helps our wireless customers meet the coverage and capacity challenges in dense urban and suburban areas where large numbers of NR and LTE devices are present. The 5G indoor small cell All-in-One package includes the baseband unit and the radio remote unit with flexible external antenna configurations. It also supports open radio access network defined interfaces for centralized and virtualized radio access network deployments.

Axyom Element Management System (AeMS)

 

We designed our AeMS to make small cell deployment and management more efficient for service providers as they expand and evolve their mobile access networks. Our virtualized AeMS provides full life-cycle management, which allows the provider to manage large scale deployments of small cells within complex network environments. It includes key management tools that facilitate integration with existing networks and increase radio access network utilization with zero-touch plug and play configuration of small cells. The AeMS provides visibility and access to all modules from a single-pane-of-glass dashboard which gives service providers the ability to monitor and control small cells efficiently and effectively. In 2020 we expanded our AeMS to use cases beyond small cell deployment management, and have connected our distribution point unit, or DPU. In 2021 we expect to add to our fixed-wireless access solutions.

Fixed Wireless Access

 

Our Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) solutions enable service providers to offer fixed, ultra-broadband services to their customers where the service provider does not own copper, fiber or coaxial cable to the customer premise, or where these access media are not cost-efficient to deploy. Connections are instead serviced by a 3GPP compliant wireless connection in a manner that optimizes overall network efficiency and provides a higher grade of broadband service than would typically be achieved via a typical mobile handset. Our fixed wireless solutions support 4G and 5G, including our newly launched 5G millimeter wave FWA device. These can be delivered as self-install indoor units or as pro-install outdoor units that are mounted to the side of the customer premise. We designed our portfolio with a heavy emphasis on reducing the total cost of ownership for operators, achieved through class-leading hardware performance and build quality and our range of install accessories that optimize the installation process and overall install success rate.

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Cable

Our solutions for cable service providers can be deployed in a centralized, distributed or virtual environment. While centralized deployments allow our customers to deploy all critical CCAP functions in a single location, distributed and virtual deployments enable our customers to densify the access network by distributing access deeper into the network, away from existing data centers.

Virtual Deployment

 

Cable service providers are actively evaluating virtualized versions of network functions, as well as software-defined networking control and orchestration to enable faster service creation and more nimble response to changes in service and bandwidth demand. In cable access networks, this trend is accompanied by fiber-deep strategies that push required ultra-broadband bandwidth closer to subscribers. Our Distributed Access Architecture solutions and virtual converged cable access platform, or vCCAP, create a secure, scalable, high-performance next-generation cable access network.

 

Our vCCAP provides all the features of our C100G CCAP on commercial-off-the-shelf, or COTS, servers in a flexible architecture that enables independent scaling of control and data planes. We built our vCCAP on our Axyom modular software framework for the cloud from the ground up. It delivers high performance and deployment flexibility in edge or core environments. Our virtual solutions also enable migration from physical network functions (or PNFs) to VNFs with a common management interface to both.

 

While our customers continue primarily to rely on their existing i-CCAP infrastructure to provide gigabit broadband service to their customers, our vCCAP and Distributed Access Architectures (or DAA) products have been deployed by several of our customers and, as of December 31, 2020, we are currently in over 70 trials with our customers globally.

Centralized Deployment

Integrated CCAP – C100G and C40G

 

Our C100G CCAP combines (i) cable modem termination system, or CMTS, functionality, which enables IP data transport from data centers to end-users over cable networks, including voice over IP, or VoIP, and (ii) edge-quadrature amplitude modulation, or Edge-QAM, functionality to enable video delivery over cable networks in one integrated chassis. We believe our C100G CCAP was the first solution offering full CCAP functionality, allowing the delivery of voice, video and data on a single platform. Our C100G CCAP also features high downstream speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second, high upstream channel capacity, and low space and energy consumption requirements. Using our C100G CCAP, our customers whose networks are configured for DOCSIS 3.0 can adopt DOCSIS 3.1 through either a software upgrade or a simple line card addition, while continuing to service their customers who use DOCSIS 3.0 modems. We are also able to increase capacity for our C100G CCAP through channel expansions, which are delivered via software-enabled increases in bandwidth capacity. We believe that our software-centric approach will enable us to seamlessly provide our customers with future updates as standards evolve.

 

In addition to our C100G CCAP, we also offer our C40G CCAP, which provides per rack unit performance comparable to that of our C100G CCAP, but in a smaller form factor.

 

Our CCAP solutions offer three key differentiating applications compared to a single cable network:

 

o

DOCSIS Core. Provides high-speed delivery of IP data for broadband connectivity services, including VoIP.

 

o

Video Core. Delivers high-speed video processing, including for HD and 4K.

 

o

Intelligent Routing. Intelligently manages network traffic to optimize service quality.

Distributed Deployment

 

DAAs offer a new approach for service providers that are looking to increase capacity in their networks. Our family of DAA solutions is designed to help service providers push capacity to the network edge to improve the services their subscribers enjoy, extract more value from existing investments, and maintain smooth operations in the transition from centralized to distributed access architectures.

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Our family of DAA solutions includes:

 

o

Physical or virtual CCAP cores that deliver full CCAP and full spectrum DOCSIS 3.1 support and are compliant with CableLabs’ interoperability standards.

 

o

The CCAP Service Card, or CSC, deployable in our C100G or C40G chassis, which provides the complete DOCSIS and Edge-QAM media access control, or MAC, functions as well as traffic aggregation for the DAA nodes or shelves.

 

o

A range of DAA node and shelf form factors that perform complete DOCSIS and EQAM physical layer, or PHY, or MAC/PHY functions. Our remote PHY, or R-PHY, solutions for cable networks retain software-driven network control and intelligence functions at the network core while placing physical layer functions remotely in a fiber node and the network edge. Our remote MAC/PHY, or R-MAC/PHY, solution for cable networks offers the capabilities of our R-PHY solution while also moving media access control functions from the network core to remotely deployed R-MAC/PHY nodes.

 

o

10G Ethernet transport between the CCAP core and the DAA nodes.

Bandwidth Capacity Expansion

 

Software. Our customers can add additional bandwidth capacity to their CCAP solutions by purchasing perpetual software license upgrades. Our software platform also permits additional features to be provisioned remotely, as compared to hardware-centric solutions, which require wholesale hardware replacements. As new standards and services evolve and broadband networks become increasingly virtualized, we expect we will be able to deliver additional capabilities as software-only updates.

 

Line cards. Our customers may also purchase additional bandwidth in the form of our upstream and downstream line cards. Our line card expansion options allow our customers to rapidly add new service interfaces and physical connection capacity without the need for chassis replacements. In addition, our expansion cards can cost-effectively enable support for our distributed access solutions utilizing the same C100G CCAP chassis.

Fixed-Line Broadband

Optical Access Solutions

 

Along with our centralized and distributed deployment solutions, we offer a portfolio of Passive Optical Network (or PON) solutions for centralized and distributed PON architectures that enable service providers to move fiber closer to the network edge and deliver a broader range of ultra-broadband services more efficiently and at higher speed. Our PON solutions include next generation 10G EPON and XGS PON alternatives, including optical line terminals and optical network units. We also offer a DOCSIS Provisioning over Ethernet system for seamless integration of our PON solutions with existing DOCSIS network protocols.

Virtualized Broadband Network Gateway Router and Multiservice Router

 

Our virtualized broadband network gateway, or vBNG, router provides advanced subscriber management and routing capabilities in a cloud-native, virtualized solution. By separating the control and data plane functions, our vBNG enables elastic scaling and service agility, while allowing the service provider to put the control and data planes where they make most sense. Accordingly, our vBNG can be deployed in either centralized architectures (on the same server in the data center or central office) or distributed ones (at the network edge or node closer to the end user). Our vBNG is deployed as a service on our Axyom NFV Framework. It is convergence ready with built-in access gateway functions, or AGF, interfacing with our 5G core. We support data plane slicing based on service (converged/legacy) with dynamic control of the slice from our 5G core. At the 2019 Broadband World Forum, we demonstrated how our vBNG and 5G core could enable subscribers to use services seamlessly as they move between mobile and fixed connectivity. This solution won us the Broadband Forum Innovation Award for 5G in 2019.

 

Our fixed-line portfolio includes our dis-aggregated Multi-Service Router, or MSR. Our MSR is built on commercial off-the-shelf switching platforms that use merchant silicon. Our MSR supports the BNG data plane on merchant silicon. It offers industry-leading throughput and capacity in a one rack-unit form factor. Our MSR operates with the vBNG control plane being separated on a server at any centralized location or integrated right within the switch CPU. Service providers therefore can pick and choose the type of data plane at each location based on scale and throughput needs. Our MSR is also a full-fledged Provider Edge, or PE,

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router. It supports layer 2 multi-protocol layer switching and layer 3 virtual private networks with resource reservation protocol for traffic engineering and Fast Re-route, a technology to provide fast traffic recovery upon link or router failures for mission critical services. It also supports edge access functions. Our MSR therefore offers the functionality of a BNG, PE Router, and Top-of-Rack switch all rolled into one.

 

Our customers use our vBNG to support their next-gen PON and multi-access edge computing deployments. As an example, we demonstrated an end-to-end solution using our G.fast DPUs and 10G XGS-PON ONTs working with our XGS-PON OLT-A product connecting to a multi-tenant vBNG. This solution offers a smooth migration path for telecommunications providers from digital subscriber line, or DSL, technologies to G.fast to fiber-to-the-home, while maintaining the same vBNG edge functions. Multi-tenancy allows customers to slice the same hardware infrastructure at the edge to different access methods based on service needs.

Fiber Extension (Fiber-To-The-Distribution-Point “FTTdp”)

 

Our Fiber Extension (or FTTdp) solutions allow service providers to extend the fiber running in the street or basement, utilizing the copper lead-ins at an end user’s premises. The solution consists of a distribution point unit, or DPU, which is installed outside of the home or in the basement of a multi-dwelling unit and a Network Connection Device, or NCD, which is installed inside the home. Our DPUs are reverse powered from the NCD when there is no power source available at the location of the DPU and where installing local power is costly and time consuming for the service provider. Our FTTdp solutions offer a cost- and time-effective means to provide a fiber-to-the-home experience to the end user and the operator, reducing time delays and cost overruns where the fiber penetration into buildings becomes problematic. Our portfolio focuses on cost optimization for service providers, with solutions ranging from software through to accessories that enhance the installation process.

Residential Broadband

 

We sell residential broadband gateways for customer premises in Australia and New Zealand. We added these devices to our product portfolio from our acquisition of NetComm. These devices allow customers to connect to very high-speed DSL, or asymmetric DSL, or fiber services including fiber-to-the-node, -basement, and -home services when available. Our fixed broadband devices range from entry level gateways to high-performance devices that support triple-play services covering high-speed data transmission, multi-HD/4K IPTV and over-the-top video streaming, as well as high quality VoIP phone calls. We combine the latest generations of Wi-Fi with our powerful CloudMesh portfolio of Wi-Fi mesh hardware, automated Wi-Fi optimization software and Wi-Fi analytics. These options ensure fast and reliable connections to multiple devices throughout the home and office, while also optimizing costs for the operator by reducing support call loading.

Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

 

Our M2M and IIoT routers provide businesses and governments with networking products that are enabled for 3G and 4G/LTE data communication. We designed these routers for applications such as retail, transportation, health, metering digital signage, security, banking and mining. These solutions enable remote diagnostics, real-time monitoring, and wireless access via the Internet. Our routers are designed to withstand harsh environmental conditions and extreme temperatures. Dual file-system management enhances solution reliability, while integrated open-source software development kits enable customers to customize our routers for specific-use cases.

Our Customers

Our solutions are commercially deployed in over 70 countries by more than 475 customers, including some of the world’s largest Tier 1 CSPs, serving millions of subscribers:

 

in North America: Charter Communications, Rogers, Videotron, Sprint, Verizon, AT&T, Bell Canada, Cable One, Mediacom, and Lumen;

 

in Latin America: Televisa/IZZI Mexico, Megacable Mexico, Cablevision Argentina, Net Brazil, America Móvile and Claro Colombia;

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in Europe: Liberty Global, Vodafone, Telefonica and DNA Oyj; and

 

in Asia-Pacific: SCSK Corporation, Jupiter Communications, Beijing Gehua CATV Networks, China Mobile, NBN and Softbank.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our solutions and services through our direct sales force and in partnership with our resellers and sales agents. Our sales force is supported by our sales engineering team, which has deep technical expertise and the capability for product presentations, product evaluations, trials and customer care. Each sales team is responsible for specific direct end-customer accounts and/or a geographic territory across the following regions: North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific and Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Our products typically have a long sales cycle, requiring detailed discussions with prospective customers about their network requirements and technology roadmaps. To help us succeed in a market characterized by long sales cycles, we have developed strong customer relationships, which in turn provide us with insight into how our products will be deployed in our customers’ networks. We involve product engineers in the sales process, enabling them to build relationships with customers that are valuable both during implementation and in post-sales customer support. These relationships also provide us with opportunities to leverage our familiarity with our customers’ needs to make additional sales following the initial sale.

We also use resellers to market, sell and support our products and services, and we use sales agents to assist our direct global sales force with certain customers, primarily in the Latin America and Asia-Pacific regions.

Our marketing activities consist primarily of technology conferences, web marketing, trade shows, seminars and events, public relations, analyst relations, demand generation and direct marketing. We undertake our marketing activities to build our brand, increase customer awareness, communicate our product advantages, and generate qualified leads for our direct sales force, as well as our resellers and sales agents.

Competition

The CSP market is highly competitive and subject to rapidly changing technology trends and shifting customer needs.

We primarily compete with larger and more established companies in the CSP market, such as Adtran, Cisco, CommScope, Ericsson, Huawei, Inseego, Nokia and Samsung.

The principal factors upon which we compete are:

 

product capabilities;

 

performance, scalability, flexibility and adaptability to new standards;

 

ability to innovate;

 

time to market;

 

customer support; and

 

total cost of ownership relative to performance and features.

We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors. Nevertheless, many of our competitors have substantial competitive advantages, including greater name recognition, longer operating histories, and substantially greater financial, technical, research and development or other resources than we do.

Research and Development

Our research and development efforts are focused on developing new broadband solutions for the fixed, wireless and cable communications markets and enhancing our current solutions to meet the current and future needs of our customers. We aim to be first to market with deployable, innovative solutions. We are willing to invest early in research and development and take technological risks to meet these goals. We also seek to enhance our technological innovation through our partnerships with industry standard-setting organizations and groups, such as CableLabs, 3GPP, and Wi-Fi Alliance. These efforts position us to be able to advance industry standards while evolving our solutions to meet those new standards.

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Manufacturing

We partner with multiple global contract manufacturing companies to manufacture the hardware for our solutions using the designs, components and standards that we specify. We conduct final assembly and quality assurance testing at our in-house and outsourced manufacturing facilities. We believe our combination of in-house and outsourced manufacturing capabilities, assembly and quality assurance testing allows us to maintain consistent and quality product for our customers. We also believe that this manufacturing model enables us to respond quickly to technological changes and supports our engineering goal of being first to market with deployable products. We believe our inventory management enables us to offer shorter times between order and delivery to our customers as compared to our competitors.

Our use of multiple contract manufacturers allows us not to be substantially dependent on the availability of any single contract manufacturer. Our contract manufacturers purchase the materials and components for our solutions through a variety of major electronics suppliers. The majority of material and component inputs for our solutions are generally available in adequate quantities from multiple suppliers.

Backlog

A portion of our customer shipments in any fiscal period relate to orders received in prior fiscal periods. This occurs when orders are received late in any fiscal period or when orders for our products exceed our manufacturing capacity. We are generally able to convert our backlog into revenue within one to two quarters, although revenue conversion may take longer. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had a backlog of $158.1 million and $52.0 million, respectively. Of the amount of backlog as of December 31, 2020, we expect that approximately $130.4 million will be shipped within the following twelve months. However, because our customers utilize purchase orders containing non-binding purchase commitments, and customers may cancel, change or reschedule orders without penalty at any time prior to shipment, we have no assurance that we will be able to convert our backlog into shipped orders and ultimately into revenue.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks, as well as contractual protections. To date, we have focused our efforts to protect our intellectual property primarily on trade secrets.

We have obtained or applied for patents and have registered or applied for trademarks and service marks in the United States and in many foreign countries. At January 31, 2021, we held seven U.S. patents, with expiration dates through 2039, and had multiple patent applications pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. We have also registered or applied to register various trademarks and service marks in the United States and a number of foreign countries, including for Casa Systems, NetComm and our four-triangle pyramid logo.

We limit access to and use of our proprietary software, technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including nondisclosure agreements with employees, consultants, customers and vendors and other measures for maintaining trade secret protection. We generally license our software to customers pursuant to agreements that impose restrictions on their ability to use the software, including prohibitions on reverse engineering and limitations on the use of copies. We also seek to avoid disclosure of our intellectual property by requiring employees and consultants with access to our proprietary information to execute nondisclosure and assignment of intellectual property agreements and by restricting access to our source code.

We also incorporate a number of third-party software programs into our solutions pursuant to license agreements. Our software is not substantially dependent on any third-party software, although in some cases it utilizes open source code.

 

Human Capital and Empowerment

Our company was founded on the principle that people are our greatest asset. We pride ourselves on our culture of innovation, which is driven by our management team of experienced executives and engineers with deep industry expertise. Our future success depends in large part on the continued service of our key technical and senior management personnel, and on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees, particularly highly-skilled engineers involved in the design, development, support and manufacture of new and existing products. In order for us to attract the best talent, we aim to offer challenging work in an environment that enables our employees to learn, grow and reach their full potential.

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Core to our empowerment strategy is embracing diversity and building a culture of inclusion across the organization. We are working to achieve this by expanding the diversity of our workforce, creating growth and development opportunities for our employees, embracing different perspectives and fostering an inclusive work environment for all.

As of December 31, 2020, we employed 993 full-time employees, of which 344 were located in the United States and 649 were located outside the United States. Our workforce as of December 31, 2020 consisted of 624 employees in engineering and research and development, 179 employees in sales and marketing, 90 employees in general and administrative, 61 employees in manufacturing and 39 employees in services and support. None of our employees are represented by unions. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good and have not experienced any interruptions of operations due to labor disagreements.

Our human capital resource objectives include identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and future employees. We strive to attract and retain the most talented employees in the industry and across the globe by offering competitive compensation and benefits that support their health, financial and emotional well-being. Our compensation philosophy is based on rewarding each employee’s individual contributions and striving to achieve equal pay for equal work regardless of gender, race or ethnicity. We use a combination of fixed and variable pay including base salary, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. The principal purposes of our equity incentive plans are to attract, retain and motivate selected employees and directors through the granting of stock-based compensation awards. We offer employees benefits that vary by country and are designed to meet or exceed local laws and to be competitive in the marketplace. Examples of benefits offered in the U.S. include a 401(k) plan with employer matching contributions; health benefits; life, business travel and disability insurance; additional voluntary insurance; paid time off and parental leave; paid counseling assistance; child and elder care assistance; family college planning and corporate discounts. For further information concerning our equity incentive plans, see Note 13, Stock-based Compensation, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We conduct annual assessments that review department goals to identify talent needs, assess how each division is positioned from a talent perspective, review the current state of talent vitality for each department, review key talent segments and prioritize actions to identify and develop talent. We regularly consider succession plans and focus on promoting internal talent to help grow our employees' careers. We encourage all employees to never stop learning through “Casa Systems University”, an on-line platform offering our employees continued learning on various technology and business topics.

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on February 28, 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 100 Old River Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, and our telephone number at that address is (978) 688-6706.

Available Information

We maintain an internet website at www.casa-systems.com and make available free of charge through our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. We make these reports available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish such reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. You can review our electronically filed reports and other information that we file with the SEC on the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. We also make available, free of charge on our website, the reports filed with the SEC by our executive officers, directors and 10% stockholders pursuant to Section 16 under the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after copies of those filings are provided to us by those persons. In addition, we regularly use our website to post information regarding our business, product development programs and governance, and we encourage investors to use our website, particularly the information in the section entitled “Investor Relations,” as a source of information about us.

The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our website address is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as an inactive technical reference only.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Our business is subject to numerous risks. The following important factors, among others, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, press releases, communications with investors, and oral statements. Actual future results may differ materially from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

Risks Related to Our Market

Risks Related to Market Dynamics

We believe the CSP industry is in the early stages of a major architectural shift toward the virtualization of networks and the use of networks with distributed architectures. If the architectural shift does not occur, if it does not occur at the pace we predict, or if the products and services we have developed are not attractive to our customers after such shift takes place, our revenues could decline.

We believe the CSP industry is in the early stages of transitioning to the virtualization of networks and the use of networks with distributed architecturesWe are developing products and services that we believe will be attractive to our customers and potential customers who make that shift. Our strategy depends in part on our belief that the industry shift to a software-centric cloud-based architecture and increasing densification will continue. In our experience, fundamental changes like this often take time to accelerate, and the adoption rates of our customers may vary. As our customers determine their future network architectures and how to implement them, we may encounter delayed timing of orders, deferred purchasing decisions and reduced expenditures. These longer decision cycles and reduced expenditures may negatively impact our revenues or make it difficult for us to accurately predict our revenues, either of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Moreover, it is possible that our customers may reverse or fail to expand upon current trends toward virtualization and distributed architectures, which could result in significantly reduced demand for the products that we have developed and currently plan to develop.

If we do not successfully anticipate technological shifts, market needs and opportunities, and develop new products and product enhancements that meet those technological shifts, needs and opportunities, we may not be able to compete effectively.

The CSP market, including fixed and wireless, is characterized by rapid technological shifts and increasingly complex customer requirements to achieve scalable networks that accommodate rapidly increasing consumer demand for bandwidth. To compete effectively, we must continue to develop new technologies and products that address emerging technological trends and changing customer needs. The process of developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and the development of new offerings requires significant upfront investment that may not result in material improvements to existing products or result in marketable new products or costs savings or revenue for an extended period of time, if at all.

We believe that our culture of innovation is a significant factor in our ability to develop new products. If we are not able to attract and retain employees that are able to contribute to our culture of innovation, our ability to identify emerging technological trends and changing customer needs and successfully develop new products to address them could be adversely impacted.

The success of new products and enhancements also depends on many other factors, including timely completion and introduction, differentiation from products offered by competitors and previous versions of our own products and, ultimately, market acceptance of these new products and enhancements. In addition, new technologies or standards could render our existing products obsolete or less attractive to customers. If we are unable to successfully introduce new products and enhancements, we would not be able to compete effectively and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our success depends in large part on CSPs’ continued deployment of, and investment in, ultra-broadband network capabilities and technologies that make use of our solutions.

Our solutions are dedicated to enabling cable, wireless and fixed-line service providers to deliver voice, video and data services over newer and faster ultra-broadband networks. As a result, our success depends significantly on these service

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providers’ continued deployment of, and investment in, their networks, which depends on a number of factors outside of our control. These factors include capital constraints, the presence of available capacity on legacy networks, perceived subscriber demand for ultra-broadband networks, competitive conditions within the CSP industry and regulatory issues. If CSPs do not continue deploying and investing in their ultra-broadband networks in ways that involve our solutions, for these or other reasons, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our continued growth depends on the pace and level of investment in 5G and 5G-related technologies.

We believe the CSP industry is in the early stages of a major architectural shift toward technologies and products related to 5G that include cloudification, virtualization, micro networks or network slicing, network densification, and 5G New Radio, or 5G NR, among others. We have invested heavily in products and solutions in these areas as we believe that they will represent significant future revenue and profitability for us. As 5G entails a fundamental shift in the way that fixed and wireless broadband communications markets are architected, the time required by our customers to evaluate and ultimately adopt 5G may be quite extended. If the adoption of 5G by our customers does not occur at the pace we predict, if our 5G products are not successful, or if our customers fail to make significant investments in 5G, our revenues could decline and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially adversely impacted.

We have invested heavily in developing wireless and fixed-line broadband solutions, and we face risks in seeking to expand our platform into the wireless and fixed-line broadband markets.

We have invested heavily in developing wireless and fixed-line solutions that are at an early stage of generating revenue. We cannot guarantee that these investments, or any of our other investments in research and development, will ever generate material revenue or become profitable for us, and the failure of these investments to generate positive returns may adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The wireless market makes up a substantial portion of our total potential addressable market. In addition, expanding our offerings into the wireless and fixed-line broadband markets presents other significant risks and uncertainties, including potential distraction of management from other business operations that generate more substantial revenue, the dedication of significant research and development, sales and marketing, and other resources to this new business line at the expense of our other business operations, and other risks that we may not have adequately anticipated.

Adverse economic conditions or reduced broadband infrastructure spending may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business depends on the overall demand for broadband connectivity. Weak domestic or global economic conditions, fear or anticipation of such conditions or a reduction in broadband infrastructure spending even if economic conditions improve, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in a number of ways, including longer sales cycles, lower prices for our products and services, reduced sales, and lower or no growth. Continued turmoil in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world may also affect the overall demand for our products and services. Deterioration in global economic or political conditions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future. A prolonged period of economic uncertainty or a downturn may also significantly affect the availability of capital and the terms and conditions of financing arrangements, including the overall cost of financing as well as the financial health or creditworthiness of our customers. Circumstances may arise in which we need, or desire, to raise additional capital, and such capital may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

Regulations affecting broadband infrastructure could reduce demand for our products.

Laws and regulations governing the Internet and electronic commerce are emerging but remain largely unsettled, even in the areas where there has been some legislative action. Regulations may focus on, among other things, assessing access or settlement charges, or imposing tariffs or regulations based on the characteristics and quality of products, either of which could restrict our business or increase our cost of doing business. Government regulatory policies are likely to continue to have a major impact on the pricing of existing and new network services and, therefore, are expected to affect demand for those services and the communications products, including our products, supporting those services.

Any changes to existing laws or the adoption of new regulations by federal or state regulatory authorities or any legal challenges to existing laws or regulations affecting IP networks could materially adversely affect the market for our products. Moreover, customers may require us, or we may otherwise deem it necessary or advisable, to alter our products to address actual or anticipated changes in the regulatory environment. Our inability to alter our products or address any regulatory changes could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

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We face intense competition, including from larger, well-established companies, and we may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position.

The market for broadband infrastructure solutions is intensely competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors and new market entrants. This competition could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased selling, general and administrative expenses, and loss of or stagnant market share, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In the CSP market, we primarily compete with larger and more established companies, such as Adtran, Cisco, CommScope, Ericsson, Huawei, Inseego, Nokia and Samsung.

Many of our existing and potential competitors enjoy substantial competitive advantages, such as:

 

greater name recognition and longer operating histories;

 

larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;

 

broader distribution and established relationships with customers;

 

greater access to larger customer bases;

 

greater customer support resources;

 

greater manufacturing resources;

 

the ability to leverage their sales efforts across a broader portfolio of products;

 

the ability to leverage purchasing power with vendor subcomponents;

 

the ability to incorporate additional functionality into their existing products;

 

the ability to bundle offerings with other products and services;

 

the ability to set more aggressive pricing policies;

 

lower labor and development costs;

 

greater resources to fund research and development or otherwise acquire new product offerings;

 

larger intellectual property portfolios; and

 

substantially greater financial, technical, research and development or other resources.

Our ability to compete will depend upon our ability to provide a comparable or better solution than our competitors at a price that offers superior value. We may be required to make substantial additional investments in research, development, sales and marketing in order to respond to our competition.

We also expect increased competition if our market continues to expand. Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements or other factors. Current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties that have greater resources available than we do. Our current or potential competitors might take advantage of the greater resources of the larger organizations resulting from these acquisitions to compete more vigorously or broadly with us. In addition, continued industry consolidation might adversely affect customers’ perceptions of the viability of smaller and even medium-sized companies, such as us, and, consequently, customers’ willingness to purchase from us. Further, certain large customers may develop broadband infrastructure solutions for internal use and/or to broaden their portfolios of internally developed resources, which could allow these customers to become new competitors in our market.

Risks Relating to Sales

Timing of large orders and seasonality in our revenue may cause our quarterly revenue and results of operations to fluctuate and possibly decline materially from quarter to quarter.

Our customers tend to make large purchases from us when initiating or upgrading services based on our solutions, followed by smaller purchases for maintenance and ongoing support. In addition, for our cable products, purchases by existing customers of capacity expansions can also involve large individual orders that may represent a significant portion of our revenue for a fiscal quarter, which may also have a significant impact on our quarterly gross margin due to these capacity expansions generating higher gross margins than our initial hardware-based deployments. As a result of all of these factors,

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our quarterly revenue and results of operations, including our gross margin, may be significantly impacted by one or a small number of large individual orders. For example, any cancellation of orders or any acceleration or delay in anticipated product purchases or the acceptance of shipped products by a large customer could materially affect our revenue and results of operations in any quarterly period. We may be unable to sustain or increase our revenue from other new or existing customers to offset the discontinuation of purchases by one of our larger customers. As a result, our quarterly revenue and results of operations are difficult to estimate and may fluctuate or decline materially from quarter to quarter.

In addition, although this was not the case for the year ended December 31, 2020, historically there have been significant seasonal factors which may cause revenue to be greater for the first and fourth quarters of our fiscal year as compared to the second and third quarters. We believe that this seasonality results from a number of factors, including the procurement, budgeting and deployment cycles of many of our customers. These seasonal variations may cause our quarterly revenue and results of operations to fluctuate or decline materially from quarter to quarter.

Our sales to the CSP market are volatile and our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable. As a result, our sales and revenue are difficult to predict and may vary substantially from period to period, which may cause our revenue and results of operations to fluctuate and possibly decline significantly.

Our sales to the CSP market have been characterized by large and sporadic purchases and long sales cycles. Sales activity often depends upon the stage of completion of expanding network infrastructures, the availability of funding and the extent to which CSPs are affected by regulatory, economic and business conditions in the countries in which they operate.

In addition, the timing of our sales and revenue recognition is difficult to forecast because of the unpredictability of our products’ sales cycles. A sales cycle is the period between initial contact with a prospective customer and the sale of our products to that customer. Customer orders often involve the purchase of multiple products. These orders are complex and difficult to obtain because prospective customers generally consider a number of factors over an extended period of time before committing to purchase the products and solutions we sell. Customers, especially in the case of our large customers, often view the purchase of our products as a significant and strategic decision and require considerable time to evaluate, test and qualify our products prior to making a purchase decision and placing an order. The length of time that customers devote to their evaluation, contract negotiation and budgeting processes varies significantly, but can often exceed 24 months. During the sales cycle, we expend significant time and money on sales and marketing activities and make investments in evaluation equipment, all of which are included in our selling, general and administrative expenses and lower our operating margins, particularly if no sale occurs.

Even if a customer decides to purchase our products, there are many factors affecting the timing of our recognition of revenue, which makes our revenue difficult to forecast. For example, the sale of our products may be subject to acceptance testing or there may be unexpected delays in a customer’s internal procurement processes, particularly for some of our larger customers, for whom our products represent a very small percentage of their total procurement activity. These factors may result in our inability to recognize revenue for months, or in some rare instances, for years following a sale. In addition, other factors that are specific to particular customers can affect the timing of their purchases and the variability of our revenue recognition, including the strategic importance of a particular project to a customer, budgetary constraints and changes in their personnel. For all of these reasons, it is difficult to predict whether a sale will be completed, the particular period in which a sale will be completed and the period in which revenue from a sale will be recognized. If our sales cycles lengthen, our revenue could be lower than expected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are exposed to the credit risk of some of our customers and to credit exposures in the event of turmoil in the credit markets, which could result in material losses.

Due to our reliance on significant customers, we are dependent on the continued financial strength of these customers. If one or more of our significant customers experience financial difficulties, it could result in uncollectible accounts receivable and our loss of these customers and anticipated revenue.

The majority of our sales are on an open credit basis, with typical payment terms of 90 days or less. We monitor individual customer payment capability in granting such open credit arrangements, seeking to limit such open credit to amounts we believe our customers can pay and maintain reserves we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts. However, there can be no assurance that our open credit customers will pay the amounts they owe to us or that the reserves we maintain will be adequate to cover such credit exposure. Our customers’ failure to pay and/or our failure to maintain sufficient reserves could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements. In addition, in the event that turmoil in the credit markets makes it more difficult for some customers to obtain financing, those customers’

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ability to pay could be adversely impacted, which in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business and operations.

A portion of our sales is also derived through our resellers, which tend to have more limited financial resources than other customers and to present increased credit risk. Our resellers also typically have the ability to terminate their agreements with us for any reason upon advance written notice.

Risks Relating to Concentration of Our Business

We expect certain of our customers will continue to represent a substantial portion of our revenue.

Historically, certain of our customers have accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. For example, sales to National Broadband Network represented 20% and 12% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively; sales to AT&T represented 11% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020; Charter Communications accounted for 14%, and 27% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively; sales to Liberty Global Affiliates accounted for 11% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018; sales to Videotron accounted for 14% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018; and sales to Rogers accounted for 12% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. Based on their historical purchasing patterns, we expect that our large customers will continue to account for a substantial portion of our revenue in future periods. However, we are party to ordinary course agreements with most of customers.  These agreements generally do not include binding annual purchasing commitments, and actual purchases can vary significantly from year to year.  The fact that a customer represents a significant percentage of revenue in any given year does not guarantee or imply that the same customer will represent a similar or greater percentage of revenue in any future year. Additionally, our customers generally make purchases from us on a purchase-order basis rather than pursuant to long-term contracts, and those that do enter long-term contracts typically have the right to terminate their contracts for convenience. As a result, we generally have no assurances that these large customers will continue to purchase our solutions. We may also see consolidation of our customer base, which could result in loss of customers. In addition, some of our large customers have used, and may in the future use, the sizes and relative importance of their orders to our business to require that we enter into agreements with more customer-favorable terms than we would otherwise agree to and obtain price concessions. The loss of a significant customer, a significant delay or reduction in purchases by large customers or significant price concessions to one or more large customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to sell additional products to our existing customers, our revenue will be adversely affected.

To increase our revenue, we must sell additional products to our existing customers and add new customers. We expect that a substantial portion of our future sales will be follow-on sales to existing customers. For example, one of our sales strategies is to target sales of capacity expansions and implementation of wireless solutions at our current cable customers because they are familiar with the operational and economic benefits of our solutions. However, our existing customers may choose to use other providers for their infrastructure needs. If we fail to sell additional products to our existing customers, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

We may have difficulty attracting new large customers or acquiring new customers due to the high costs of switching broadband equipment.

CSPs typically need to make substantial investments when deploying network infrastructure, which can delay a purchasing decision. Once a CSP has deployed infrastructure for a particular portion of its network, it is often difficult and costly to switch to another vendor’s infrastructure. Unless we are able to demonstrate that our products offer significant performance, functionality or cost advantages that outweigh a customer’s expense of switching from a competitor’s product, it will be difficult for us to generate sales once that competitor’s equipment has been deployed. Accordingly, if a customer has already deployed a competitor’s product for its broadband infrastructure, it may be difficult for us to sell our products to that customer. If we fail to attract new large customers or acquire new customers, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our converged cable access platform, or CCAP, solutions currently represent a significant percentage of our product sales; our business would be adversely affected in the event we are unable to sell one or more of our CCAP products.

Historically, we have generated the majority of our revenue from the cable market with our converged cable access platform, or CCAP. In 2019, as we became more diversified via expansion of our target markets to include wireless and fixed-line broadband solutions, and following our acquisition of NetComm, the share of wireless and fixed-line products in our revenue mix has increased. However, even as our business expands increasingly into wireless and fixed-line broadband

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solutions, we remain heavily dependent upon the sales of our CCAP solutions. In the event we are unable to market and sell these products or any future product that represents a substantial amount of our revenue, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our International Dealings

We generate a significant amount of revenue from sales to customers outside of the United States and have increased geographic diversity of our revenues following the acquisition of NetComm; we are therefore subject to a number of risks associated with international sales and operations.

We have extensive international operations and generate a significant amount of revenue from sales to customers in Asia-Pacific, Europe and Latin America. Our ability to grow our business and our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to continue to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. To this end, in the third quarter of 2019, we completed the acquisition of NetComm, an Australian public company.

As a result of our international reach, we must hire and train experienced personnel to staff and manage our foreign operations. To the extent that we experience difficulties in recruiting, training, managing and retaining an international staff, and specifically staff related to sales management and sales personnel, we may experience difficulties in sales productivity in foreign markets. We also enter into strategic relationships with resellers and sales agents in certain international markets where we do not have a local presence. If we are not able to maintain these relationships or to recruit additional companies to enter into reseller and sales agent relationships, our future success in these international markets could be limited.

Business practices in the international markets that we serve may differ from those in the United States and may require us in the future to include terms other than our standard terms in customer contracts. To the extent that we may enter into customer contracts in the future that include non-standard terms related to payment, warranties or performance obligations, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

greater risk of unexpected changes in regulatory practices, tariffs and tax laws and treaties;

 

greater difficulty in enforcing contracts and accounts receivable collection and longer collection periods;

 

increased expenses incurred in establishing and maintaining our international operations;

 

fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies where we do business;

 

greater difficulty and costs in recruiting local experienced personnel;

 

wage inflation in certain growing economies;

 

general economic and political conditions in these foreign markets;

 

economic uncertainty around the world as a result of sovereign debt issues;

 

communication and integration problems resulting from cultural and geographic dispersion;

 

limitations on our ability to access cash resources in our international operations;

 

ability to establish necessary business relationships and to comply with local business requirements;

 

risks associated with trade restrictions and foreign legal requirements, including the importation, certification and localization of our products required in foreign countries;

 

the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

delays resulting from our need to comply with foreign cybersecurity laws;

 

greater risk of a failure of our operations and employees to comply with both U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including antitrust regulations; the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA; privacy and data protection laws and regulations and any trade regulations ensuring fair trade practices; and

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heightened risk of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of, or irregularities in, financial statements.

These and other factors could harm our ability to gain future international revenue and, consequently, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Expanding our existing international operations and entering into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial commitments. Our failure to successfully manage our international operations and the associated risks effectively could limit our future growth or materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We have significant operations in China, where many of the risks listed above are particularly acute. Import tariffs and other restrictions imposed by the U.S. government and related retaliatory action taken by China could significantly increase, among other things, which could cause an increase in the costs of raw materials, manufacturing of our products and costs for goods imported into the United States, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Any such trade barriers could reduce customer demand for our products if our customers have to pay increased prices for our products as a result of such policies. In addition, such policies may have a similar impact on other suppliers and certain customers, which could increase the negative impact on our operating results or future cash flows. Although we have not experienced a significant increase in the cost of our operations, if we were to do so, our products could become less competitive than those of our competitors whose imports are not subject to these trade policies.

In 2019 and 2018, the Office of the United States Trade Representative, or USTR, imposed significant new tariffs on a wide variety of Chinese products, including certain of our products, pursuant to Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. USTR has imposed significant additional tariffs on Chinese products, effective at various dates from July 6, 2018 through September 1, 2019. Effective February 14, 2020, certain of these tariffs were reduced or suspended, however, there continues to be significant uncertainty in connection with tariff matters. In the event that any existing tariffs are increased, or any additional tariffs are imposed on our products, or that our products become subject to any other trade barriers or restrictions, our business, financial condition, our results of operations and commercial prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We rely on resellers and sales agents to sell our products into certain international markets, and the loss of such resellers and sales agents could delay or harm our ability to deliver our products to our customers.

We rely upon resellers and sales agents to coordinate sales and distribution of our products in certain international markets. We provide our resellers and sales agents with specific training and programs to assist them in selling our products, but these steps may not be effective. In addition, our resellers and sales agents may be unsuccessful in marketing, selling and supporting our products and services. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective sales incentive programs for our resellers and sales agents, we may not be able to incentivize these resellers and sales agents to sell our products to customers. Any of our resellers and sales agents could elect to consolidate or enter into a strategic partnership with one of our competitors, which could reduce or eliminate our future opportunities with that reseller or sales agent. Our agreements with our resellers and sales agents may generally be terminated for any reason by either party with advance notice. We may be unable to retain these resellers and sales agents or secure additional or replacement resellers and sales agents. The replacement of one or more of our significant resellers or sales agents requires extensive training, and any new or expanded relationship with a reseller or sales agent may take several months or more to achieve productivity. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls and similar restrictions that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate them.

Our products may be subject to various export controls and because we incorporate encryption technology into certain of our products, certain of our products may be exported from various countries only with the required export license or through an export license exception. Furthermore, certain export control and economic sanctions laws prohibit the shipment of certain products, technology, software and services to embargoed countries and sanctioned governments, entities, and persons. If we fail to comply with the applicable export control laws, customs regulations, economic sanctions or other applicable laws, we could be subject to monetary damages or the imposition of restrictions which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and could also harm our reputation. Further, there could be criminal penalties for knowing or willful violations, including incarceration for culpable employees and managers. Obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities.

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In addition, various countries regulate the importation of certain encryption technology and products, including through import permit and license requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations or create delays in the introduction of our products into international markets. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Relating to Solutions

Risks Related to Quality

Our products are necessary for the operation of our customers’ broadband service operations. Product quality problems, warranty claims, services disruptions, or other defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our products or services could harm our reputation and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We assist our customers in the operation of their broadband service operations. Failure of our products could result in significant interruptions in our customers’ capabilities to maintain their networks and operations. Further, unsatisfactory performance could cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs in analyzing, correcting or redesigning our products, cause us to lose significant customers, subject us to liability for damages and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of our products. Such defects could result in warranty claims or claims by customers for losses that they sustain or, in some cases, could allow customers to claim damages. In the past, we have had to replace certain components of products that we had shipped or provide remediation in response to the discovery of defects or bugs from failures in software protocols.

Limitation of liability provisions in our standard terms and conditions of sale, and those of our resellers and sales agents, may not be enforceable under some circumstances or may not fully or effectively protect us from end-customer claims and related liabilities and costs. In some cases, including with respect to indemnification obligations under many of our agreements with customers and resellers, our contractual liability may be uncapped. The sale and support of our products also entail the risk of product liability claims. We maintain insurance to protect against certain types of claims associated with the use of our products, but our insurance coverage may not adequately cover any such claims. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in expenditures of funds in connection with litigation and divert management’s time and other resources.

Our ability to sell our products is highly dependent on the quality of our support and services offerings, and our failure to offer high-quality support and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Once our products are deployed within our customers’ networks, our customers depend on our support organization to resolve any issues relating to our products. Our provision of high-quality support is critical for the successful marketing and sale of our products. If we do not assist our customers in deploying our products effectively, do not succeed in helping our customers resolve post-deployment issues quickly or do not provide adequate ongoing support, it could adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing customers and could harm our reputation with potential customers. In addition, our standard sales contracts require us to provide minimum service requirements to our customers on an ongoing basis and our failure to satisfy these requirements could expose us to claims under these contracts. Our failure to maintain high-quality support and services, including compliance with our contractual minimum service obligations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to Research and Development

We may not generate positive returns on our research and development investments.

Developing our products is expensive, and the investment in product development may involve a long payback cycle or may result in investments in technologies or standards that do not get adopted in the timeframe we anticipate, or at all. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our research and development expenses were $84.4 million, or approximately 21.5% of our revenue, $83.3 million, or approximately 29.5% of our revenue, and $71.0 million, or approximately 23.9% of our revenue, respectively. We expect to continue to invest in software and hardware development in order to expand the capabilities of our fixed and wireless broadband infrastructure solutions, introduce new products and features and build upon our technology leadership, and our research and development expenses may continue to increase in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue from 2020 to 2021. Our investments in research and development may not generate positive returns in a timely fashion or at all.

Our products must interoperate with operating systems, software applications and hardware, and comply with industry standards, that are developed by others, and if we are unable to devote the necessary resources for our products to interoperate with such software and hardware and comply with such standards, we may lose or fail to increase market share and experience a weakening demand for our products.

Generally, our products comprise only a part of and must interoperate with our customers’ existing infrastructure, specifically their networks, servers, software and operating systems, which may be manufactured by a wide variety of vendors and original equipment manufacturers. Our products must also comply with industry standards, such as Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, or DOCSIS, 3.0 and 3.1, and standards promulgated by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, or 3GPP, a standards organization which develops protocols for mobile technology, which are established by third parties, in order to interoperate with such servers, storage, software and other networking equipment such that all systems function efficiently together. We may depend on other vendors to support prevailing industry standards. Also, some industry standards may not be widely adopted or implemented uniformly and competing standards and other approaches may emerge that may be preferred by our customers.

In addition, when new or updated versions of these industry standards, software systems or applications are introduced, we must sometimes develop updated versions of our software so that our products will interoperate properly. We may not accomplish these development efforts quickly, cost-effectively or at all. These development efforts require capital investment and the devotion of engineering resources. If we fail to maintain compatibility with these systems and applications, our customers may not be able to adequately utilize our products, and we may lose or fail to increase market share and experience a weakening in demand for our products, among other consequences, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to Our Operations

Risks Related to Internal Resources

Our operations have experienced rapid growth in recent years, and if we do not appropriately manage any future growth or are unable to improve our systems and processes, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be adversely affected.

We have experienced rapid growth in the scope and complexity of our operations in recent years and are investing in growing our suite of solutions for cable, fixed-line and wireless service providers. This has placed a strain on our management, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. Our headcount increased from 743 as of December 31, 2018, to 993 as of December 31, 2020, and we anticipate continuing to increase our headcount as needed based on future growth. As we have grown, we have had to manage an increasingly larger and more complex array of internal systems and processes to scale with all aspects of our business, including our software development, contract manufacturing and purchasing, logistics and fulfillment and sales, maintenance and support. Our success will depend in part upon our ability to manage our growth effectively. To do so, we must continue to increase the productivity of our existing employees and continue to hire, train and manage new employees as needed. To manage domestic and international growth of our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting processes and procedures and implement more extensive and integrated financial and business information systems. We may not be able to successfully implement these or other improvements to our systems and processes in an efficient or timely manner, and we may discover deficiencies in their capabilities or effectiveness. Our failure to improve our systems and processes, or their failure to operate effectively and in the intended manner, may result in disruption of our current operations and customer relationships, our inability to manage the growth of our business, and our inability to accurately forecast our

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revenue, expenses and earnings.

If we are unable to hire, retain, train and motivate qualified personnel and senior management, including in particular our founders, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.

Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, particularly software engineering and sales personnel. Competition for highly skilled personnel is often intense, particularly in the greater Boston region where we are headquartered, and we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees that we need to support our business. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have to provide more attractive compensation packages and other amenities. Research and development personnel are aggressively recruited by startup and growth companies, which are especially active in many of the technical areas and geographic regions in which we conduct product development. In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the high-technology industry, job candidates often consider the value of the stock-based compensation they are to receive in connection with their employment. Declines in the market price of our stock could adversely affect our ability to attract, motivate or retain key employees. If we are unable to attract or retain qualified personnel, or if there are delays in hiring required personnel, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Also, to the extent we hire personnel from competitors, or from certain customers or other third parties whose employees we have agreed not to solicit, we may be subject to allegations that such personnel have been improperly solicited, that such personnel have divulged proprietary or other confidential information or that former employers own certain inventions or other work product. Such claims could result in litigation.

Our future performance also depends on the continued services and continuing contributions of our founders and senior management to execute our business plan and to identify and pursue new opportunities and product innovations. Our employment arrangements with our employees do not require that they continue to work for us for any specified period, and therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. In particular, the loss of Jerry Guo, our President and Chief Executive Officer, and Weidong Chen, our Chief Technology Officer, could have a material adverse impact on our business. Further, the loss of other members of our senior management team, sales and marketing team or engineering team, or any difficulty attracting or retaining other highly qualified personnel in the future, could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Except with respect to Mr. Guo, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance on our officers, directors or key employees.

If we do not effectively expand and train our direct sales force, we may be unable to increase sales to our existing customers or add new customers, and our business will be adversely affected.

We depend on our direct sales force to increase sales with existing customers and to obtain new customers. As such, we have invested and will continue to invest substantially in our sales organization. In recent periods, we have been adding personnel to our sales function as we focus on growing our business, entering new markets and increasing our market share. There is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, retaining and integrating sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth, particularly in international markets. In addition, we have significantly increased the number of personnel in our sales and marketing departments in recent periods, with headcount growing from 142 as of December 31, 2018, to 179 as of December 31, 2020. New hires require significant training and may take significant time before they achieve full productivity. Our recent hires and planned hires may not become productive as quickly as we expect, and we may be unable to hire, retain or integrate into our corporate culture sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the markets where we do business or plan to do business. If we are unable to hire, integrate and train a sufficient number of effective sales personnel, or the sales personnel we hire are not successful in obtaining new customers or increasing sales to our existing customer base, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to Supply Chain and Inventory Management

Because we depend on third-party manufacturers to build our hardware, we are susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from delivering customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales and customers.

We depend on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our product hardware. A significant portion of our cost of revenue consists of payments to these third-party contract manufacturers. Our reliance on these third-party contract

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manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process, quality assurance, product costs and product supply and timing, which exposes us to risk. To the extent that our products are manufactured at facilities in foreign countries, we may be subject to additional risks associated with complying with local rules and regulations in those jurisdictions. If we are unable to manage our relationships with our third-party contract manufacturers effectively, or if these third-party manufacturers suffer delays or disruptions for any reason, experience increased manufacturing lead times, capacity constraints or quality control problems in their manufacturing operations or fail to meet our future requirements for timely delivery, our ability to ship products to our customers would be severely impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our contract manufacturers typically fulfill our supply requirements on the basis of individual orders. We do not have long-term contracts with our third-party manufacturers that guarantee capacity, the continuation of particular pricing terms or the extension of credit limits. Accordingly, they are not obligated to continue to fulfill our supply requirements, which could result in supply shortages and increases in the prices for manufacturing services on short notice. We may not be able to develop alternate contract manufacturers in a timely manner, or at all. If we add or change contract manufacturers or change any manufacturing plant locations within a contract manufacturer network, we would add additional complexity and risk to our supply chain management.

In addition, we may be subject to significant challenges in ensuring that quality, processes and costs, among other issues, are consistent with our expectations and those of our customers. A new contract manufacturer or manufacturing location may not be able to scale its production of our products at the volumes or quality we require. This could also adversely affect our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers, which could damage our customer relationships and cause the loss of sales to existing or potential customers, late delivery penalties, delayed revenue or an increase in our costs which could adversely affect our gross margins. This could also result in increased levels of inventory subjecting us to increased excess and obsolete charges that could have a negative impact on our results of operations.

Because some of the key components in our products come from limited sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages or supply changes, which could disrupt or delay our scheduled product deliveries to our customers and may result in the loss of sales and customers.

Our products rely on key components that our contract manufacturers purchase on our behalf from a limited number of suppliers, including Altera, Analog Devices, Bell Power, Broadcom, Intel, Marvell, Maxim, Mini-Circuits, Qorvo, Qualcomm, Quectel, TTM Technologies and Xilinx. We do not have guaranteed supply contracts with any of our component suppliers, and our suppliers could delay shipments or cease manufacturing such products or selling them to us at any time. The development of alternate sources for those components is time-consuming, difficult and costly. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient quantity of these components on commercially reasonable terms or in a timely manner, sales of our products could be delayed or halted entirely, or we may be required to redesign our products. For example, as a result of COVID-19, certain of our components may be in short supply or may be delayed in reaching our contract manufacturers worldwide. These events could result in lost sales and damage to our customer relationships, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In the event of a shortage or supply interruption from our component suppliers, we may not be able to develop alternate or secondary sources in a timely manner, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, certain of our customer contracts require us to notify our customers of any discontinuation of the products that we supply to them and to provide support for discontinued products, and lack of supply from our suppliers could leave us unable to fulfill our customer support obligations. Adverse changes to our relationships with our sole suppliers could result in lost sales and damage to our customer relationships, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We base our inventory requirements on our forecasts of future sales. If these forecasts are materially inaccurate, we may procure inventory that we may be unable to use in a timely manner or at all.

We and our contract manufacturers procure components and build our products based on our forecasts. These forecasts are based on estimates of future demand for our products, which are in turn based on historical trends and analyses from our sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions. To the extent our forecasts are materially inaccurate or if we otherwise do not need such inventory, we may under- or over-procure inventory, and such inaccuracies in our forecasts could subject us to contractual damages and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to Our Financial Condition

As the majority of the growth in our revenue and income from operations has occurred since 2013, it is difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

We were founded in 2003 and booked our first revenue in 2006. The majority of the growth in our revenue and income from operations has occurred during 2013 to 2017. Given the cyclicality of our end markets, we may sometimes have difficulty evaluating our future prospects or planning for and managing future growth. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by rapidly growing companies in constantly evolving and highly cyclical industries, including the risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. During 2018 and 2019, our revenue declined. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected, and the market price of our common stock could decline.

We have outstanding debt that could limit our ability to make expenditures and investments in the conduct of our business and adversely impact our ability to obtain future financing.

We have outstanding debt. We may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay when due the principal of, interest on, or other amounts due in respect of our indebtedness. We may be required to dedicate significant cash flows from operations to make such payments, which could limit our ability to make other expenditures and investments in the conduct of our business. Our indebtedness may also reduce our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and market conditions. Our indebtedness also exposes us to interest rate risk, since our debt obligations generally bear interest at variable rates. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in the future to meet future financing needs. If we add new debt, the risks described above could increase.

Our credit facility contains restrictive and financial covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.

Our credit facility contains certain restrictive covenants that either limit our ability to, or require a mandatory prepayment in the event we, incur additional indebtedness and liens, merge with other companies or consummate certain changes of control, acquire other companies, engage in new lines of business, change business locations, make certain investments, make any payments on any subordinated debt, transfer or dispose of assets, amend certain material agreements, and enter into various specified transactions. We, therefore, may not be able to engage in any of the foregoing transactions unless we obtain the consent of our lenders or prepay the outstanding amount under the credit facility. In addition to certain financial reporting requirements, the credit facility also contains a net leverage ratio covenant that may significantly reduce our available borrowings under such facilities. As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with the net leverage ratio covenant. Our obligations under the credit facility are secured by substantially all of our assets, excluding intellectual property and certain investments in foreign subsidiaries. Furthermore, our future working capital, borrowings or equity financing could be unavailable to repay or refinance the amounts outstanding under the credit facility. In the event of a liquidation, our lenders would be repaid all outstanding principal and interest prior to distribution of assets to unsecured creditors, and the holders of our common stock would receive a portion of any liquidation proceeds only if all of our creditors, including our lenders, were first repaid in full.

Risks Related to Information Technology Systems and Data Protection

Breaches of our cybersecurity systems and measures could degrade our ability to conduct our business operations and deliver products and services to our customers, delay our ability to recognize revenue, compromise the integrity of our products, result in significant data losses and the theft of our intellectual property, damage our reputation, expose us to liability to third parties and require us to incur significant additional costs to maintain the security of our networks and data.

We are increasingly dependent upon our IT systems to conduct virtually all of our business operations, ranging from our internal operations and product development activities to our marketing and sales efforts and communications with our customers and business partners. Certain persons and entities may attempt to penetrate our network and systems, or of the systems hosting our website, and may otherwise seek to misappropriate our proprietary or confidential information or cause interruptions of our service. Because the techniques used by such persons and entities to access or sabotage networks and systems change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. We have also outsourced a number of our business functions to third parties, including our manufacturers and logistics providers, and our business operations also depend, in part, on the success of these third parties’ own cybersecurity measures. Additionally, we depend upon our employees and independent contractors to appropriately handle confidential

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data and deploy our IT resources in a safe and secure fashion that does not expose our network systems to security breaches and the loss of data. Accordingly, if any of our cybersecurity systems, processes or policies, or those of any of our manufacturers, logistics providers, customers or independent contractors, fail to protect against unauthorized access, sophisticated hacking or terrorism and the mishandling, misuse, or misappropriation of data by employees, contractors or other persons or entities, our ability to conduct our business effectively could be damaged in a number of ways, including:

 

sensitive data regarding our business, including intellectual property, personal information and other confidential and proprietary data, could be leaked or stolen;

 

our electronic communications systems, including email and other methods, could be disrupted, and our ability to conduct our business operations could be seriously damaged until such systems can be restored;

 

our ability to process customer orders and electronically deliver products and services could be degraded, and our distribution channels could be disrupted, resulting in delays in revenue recognition, damage to our relationships with customers and prospective customers and damage to our reputation;

 

defects and security vulnerabilities could be introduced into our software, products, network and systems, thereby damaging our reputation and perceived reliability and security of our products and potentially making the systems of our customers vulnerable to data loss and cyber incidents; and

 

personally, identifiable data relating to various parties, including end users, employees and business partners could be compromised.

Should any of the above events occur, we could be subject to significant claims for liability from our customers, employees or others and regulatory investigations or actions from governmental agencies. In addition, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights could be compromised and our reputation and competitive position could be significantly harmed. Any regulatory, contractual or other actions, litigations, investigations, fines, penalties and liabilities relating to any actual or alleged misuse or misappropriation of personal data or other confidential or proprietary information could be significant in terms of monetary exposure and reputational impact and necessitate changes to our business operations that may be disruptive to us. Additionally, we could incur significant costs in order to upgrade our cybersecurity systems, processes, policies and procedures and remediate damages. Consequently, our financial performance and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to Acquisitions

We may invest in or acquire other businesses, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

As part of our growth strategy, we may make investments in or acquire complementary companies, products or technologies. For example, on July 1, 2019, we announced that we closed the acquisition of NetComm in Australia for cash consideration of AUD $162.0 million (USD $112.7 million, based on an exchange rate of USD $0.700 per AUD $1.00 on July 1, 2019). We do not have significant experience in making investments in other companies nor have we made a significant number of acquisitions to date, and as a result, our ability as an organization to evaluate and/or complete investments or acquire and integrate other companies, products or technologies in a successful manner is unproven. We may not be able to find suitable future investment or acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete such investments or acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. Our acquisition of NetComm may not achieve the objectives we have outlined for our stockholders or strengthen our competitive position. If we complete additional investments or acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any investments or acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by our customers, investors and securities analysts.

In addition, current and future investments and acquisitions may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. For example, if we are unsuccessful at integrating any acquisitions or retaining key talent from those acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of the combined company could be materially adversely affected. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel or accurately forecast the financial effects of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such investment or acquisition, each of which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock. The sale of equity or issuance of convertible debt to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. Moreover, if the investment or

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acquisition becomes impaired, we may be required to take an impairment charge, which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Litigation

Litigation could distract management, increase our expenses or subject us to material money damages and other remedies.

We are subject to multiple putative class action lawsuits alleging federal securities law violations in connection with our initial public offering and our subsequent follow-on offering, and may be involved from time to time in various additional legal proceedings, including, but not limited to, actions relating to breach of contract or intellectual property infringement that might necessitate changes to our business or operations. Regardless of whether any claims against us have merit, or whether we are ultimately held liable or subject to payment of damages, claims may be expensive to defend and may divert management's time away from our operations. If any legal proceedings were to result in an unfavorable outcome, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations. Any adverse publicity resulting from actual or potential litigation may also materially and adversely affect our reputation, which in turn could adversely affect our results.

Risks Related to COVID-19 Pandemic

The coronavirus outbreak could negatively impact our operations and have an adverse effect on our revenues and/or results of operations.

The emergence of the coronavirus disease, or COVID-19, in 2019 and continuance in 2020 and 2021 around the world, and particularly in the United States and China, and the accompanying responses of governments and businesses to the pandemic present various risks to us, not all of which we are able to fully evaluate or even to foresee at the current time. While the COVID-19 pandemic did not materially adversely affect our financial results, business operations or liquidity in the year ended December 31, 2020, economic and health conditions in the United States and across most of the globe changed rapidly during, and are continuing to change after the end of, the year. Globally to date, all aspects of our business remain fully operational, our work from home contingency plans have been implemented and are operating successfully, and we are working with our supply chain and contract manufacturers to ensure either continued availability of all anticipated inventory requirements or contingency plans where certain inventory requirements are delayed to try to mitigate any disruption to our delivery schedules with customers. We intend to continue to monitor our business very closely for any effects of COVID-19 for as long as necessary on an ongoing basis.

Due to the above circumstances and as described generally in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in future years. Management cannot predict the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our sales channels, supply chain, manufacturing and distribution, or on economic conditions generally, including the effects on our current and potential customers, who may curtail spending on investments in current and/or new technologies, delay new equipment evaluations and trials, and possibly delay payments based on liquidity concerns, all of which could have a material impact on our business in the future. Similarly, our supply chain and our contract manufacturers could be affected, which could cause disruptions to our ability to meet customer demand or delivery schedules. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we did see certain delays in the supply chain that adversely impacted a small number of delivery schedules. If COVID-19 were to continue to cause such impacts in the future, there could likely be a material adverse impact on our financial results, liquidity and capital resource needs. This uncertainty makes it challenging for management to estimate the future performance of our businesses, particularly over the near to medium term. However, the impact of COVID-19 could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations over the near to medium term.

The coronavirus outbreak has resulted in an increase in demand for certain of our solutions, which may subside or decrease when the pandemic ends.

  The pandemic, and resulting lockdowns, has resulted in an increase in demand for residential broadband services, which has in turn lead to an increase in demand for certain of our solutions, including our FTTDp home network connection devices and our Fixed Wireless Access CPE devices. We also saw a shift in demand from our cable customers toward more I-CCAP chassis each quarter. That increase in demand contributed to our strong revenue performance in 2020. We cannot guarantee that the heightened demand for residential broadband services will continue for the duration of the pandemic or after the pandemic ends. We similarly cannot guarantee that even to the extent the heightened demand for residential

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broadband services continues that we will continue to see heightened demand for our solutions. A decrease in demand for our solutions could have a material adverse impact on our revenue and results of operations.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain, maintain or protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed or we could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce our rights.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws and confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties to protect and enforce our rights to our proprietary technology, all of which offer only limited protection.

We have a relatively limited patent portfolio. With respect to the protection of our technology and inventions, we rely to a significant degree on trade secrets. If others independently discover our trade secrets, we would not be able to assert trade secret rights against such parties. Effective trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our services are available or where we have employees or independent contractors. The loss or unavailability of trade secret protection could make it easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality. In addition, any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the trade secret and employment laws in any jurisdiction in which we operate may compromise our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, we rely in significant part on confidentiality arrangements with our employees, licensees, independent contractors, advisers and customers. These arrangements may not be effective to prevent disclosure of proprietary information, including trade secrets, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of proprietary information.

We rely on patents to protect certain aspects of our proprietary technology in the United States and other jurisdictions. The process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. We may choose not to seek patent protection for certain innovations and may choose not to pursue patent protection in certain jurisdictions. Further, we cannot guarantee that any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or that any patents that do issue from such applications will have adequate scope to provide us with a competitive advantage. There is no assurance that all potentially relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found. To the extent that additional patents are issued from our patent applications, which is not certain, third parties may challenge their validity, enforceability or scope, which may result in such patents being narrowed or invalidated. If third parties have prepared and filed patent applications in the United States that also claim technology to which we have rights, we may have to participate in interference proceedings in the United States Patent and Trademark Office to determine priority of invention for patent applications filed before March 16, 2013, or in derivation proceedings to determine inventorship for patent applications filed after such date. In addition, patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years after its effective filing date. Even if patents covering our products are obtained by us or by our licensors, once such patents expire, we may be vulnerable to competition from similar products. Moreover, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with adequate protection or competitive advantages, and, as with any technology, competitors may be able to develop similar or superior technologies to our own now or in the future.

Despite our efforts, the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights, and our ability to police such misappropriation or infringement is uncertain, particularly in countries outside of the United States. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained or are unable to adequately enforce intellectual property protection to develop their own products. We are also restricted from asserting our intellectual property rights against certain customers under our contracts with them.

Detecting and protecting against the unauthorized use of our products, technology and proprietary rights is expensive, difficult and, in some cases, impossible. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such

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litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and there is no guarantee that we would be successful. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to protecting their technology or intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property, which could result in a substantial loss of our market share. Even if we did succeed in enforcing our intellectual property through litigation, this may be costly and divert management resources.

Finally, certain of our license agreements with our third-party licensors provide for joint ownership of developments or inventions that we create that are related to the subject matter of the license. Other agreements to which we are subject, including member agreements with standards bodies and research and development consortia, may require us to disclose and/or grant licenses to technology that is related to the subject matter of the standards body or the consortium and included in our contributions to specifications established by these bodies. These agreements could result in third parties having ownership or license rights to important intellectual property with respect to which we otherwise may have elected to maintain exclusive ownership.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

We have not applied for trademark registration for our name and logo in all geographic markets. In those markets where we have applied for trademark registration, failure to secure those registrations could adversely affect our ability to enforce and defend our trademark rights and result in indemnification claims. Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names, as well as the registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names used by our resellers or distributors associated with our products, may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. Any claim of infringement by a third party, even those claims without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against such claim, could divert management attention from our business and could require us to cease use of such intellectual property in certain geographic markets. Over the long term, if we, or our resellers or distributors, are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then our business may be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Third-Party Intellectual Property

Unavailability, termination or breach of licenses to third-party software and other intellectual property could materially harm our business.

Many of our products and services include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties, and we otherwise use software and other intellectual property licensed from third parties in our business. We exercise no control over our third-party licensors, and the failure or unsuitability of their software or other intellectual property exposes us to risks that we will have little ability to control. For example, a licensor may have difficulties keeping up with technological changes or may stop supporting the software or other intellectual property that it licenses to us; our licensors may also have the ability to terminate our licenses if the licensed technology becomes the subject of a claim of intellectual property infringement. Also, it will be necessary in the future to renew licenses, expand the scope of existing licenses or seek new licenses, relating to various aspects of these products and services or otherwise relating to our business, which may result in increased license fees. Any new licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, a third party may assert that we or our customers are in breach of the terms of a license, which could, among other things, give such third party the right to terminate a license or seek damages from us, or both. The inability to obtain or maintain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain or maintain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could result in delays in releases of products and services and could otherwise disrupt our business, until equivalent technology can be identified, licensed or developed, if at all, and integrated into our products and services or otherwise in the conduct of our business. Moreover, the inclusion in our products and services of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis may limit our ability to differentiate our products from those of our competitors. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.

Our products contain software modules licensed to us by third parties under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source

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licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software that we use. If we combine our software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release portions of the source code of our software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.

Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our products to undesirable conditions, we do not have a formal open source policy in place that gives our developers written guidance on what open source licenses we deem “safe.” Further, even where we believe an open source license may have acceptable conditions, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Moreover, we cannot guarantee that our informal processes for controlling our use of open source software in our products will be effective or that our compliance with open source licenses, including notice and attribution requirements, are adequate. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses, which may not be available on economically feasible terms, from third parties to continue offering our products, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely or commercially reasonable basis, or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code. We also could face infringement claims. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property Litigation

Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights, or other lawsuits asserted against us, could result in significant costs and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Patent and other intellectual property disputes are common in the broadband industry and have resulted in protracted and expensive litigation for many companies. Many companies in the broadband infrastructure industry, including our competitors and other third parties, as well as non-practicing entities, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, which they may use to assert claims of patent infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights against us. As discussed in greater detail below, from time to time, they have or may in the future also assert such claims against our customers or certain of our business partners whom we typically indemnify against claims that our products infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of third parties.

As the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur, claims of infringement, misappropriation and other violations of intellectual property rights may increase. Any claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights by a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, distract our management from our business and require us to cease use of such intellectual property, which may impact important elements of our business. In addition, some claims for patent infringement may relate to subcomponents that we purchase from third parties. If these third parties are unable or unwilling to indemnify us for these claims, we could be substantially harmed.

The patent portfolios of most of our competitors are larger than ours. This disparity may increase the risk that our competitors may sue us for patent infringement and may limit our ability to counterclaim for patent infringement or settle through patent cross-licenses. In addition, future assertions of patent rights by third parties, and any resulting litigation, may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. We cannot guarantee that we are not infringing or otherwise violating any third-party intellectual property rights.

The third-party asserters of intellectual property claims may be unreasonable in their demands, or may simply refuse to settle, which could lead to expensive settlement payments, prolonged periods of litigation and related expenses, additional burdens on employees or other resources, distraction from our business, supply stoppages and lost sales. Moreover, in recent years, individuals and groups that are non-practicing entities, commonly referred to as “patent trolls,” have purchased patents and other intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement in order to extract settlements. From time to time, we receive threatening letters or notices and have been the subject of claims that our solutions and underlying technology infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others. Responding to such claims, regardless of their merit, can be time-consuming, costly to defend in litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, damage our reputation and brand, and cause us to incur significant expenses.

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An adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay substantial damages including treble damages if we are found to have willfully infringed a third party’s patents; cease making, licensing or using solutions that are alleged to infringe or misappropriate the intellectual property of others; expend additional development resources to attempt to redesign our products or services or otherwise to develop non-infringing technology, which may not be successful; enter into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or intellectual property rights; and indemnify our partners and other third parties. Any damages or royalty obligations we may become subject to as a result of an adverse outcome, and any third-party indemnity we may need to provide, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Royalty or licensing agreements, if required or desirable, may be unavailable on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may require significant royalty payments and other expenditures. Further, there is little or no information publicly available concerning market or fair values for license fees, which can lead to overpayment of license or settlement fees. In addition, some licenses may be non-exclusive, and therefore our competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to us. Suppliers subject to third-party intellectual property claims also may choose or be forced to discontinue or alter their arrangements with us, with little or no advance notice to us. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our indemnification obligations to our customers and business partners for claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation are relatively broad in scope and could result in significant liability for us.

Our agreements with our customers and certain of our business partners typically include broad intellectual property indemnification provisions pursuant to which we may be required to indemnify and hold harmless our customers and partners for all damages, costs, expenses, liabilities, and settlements (including court costs and attorney fees) arising out of any claim, cause of action, demand, lawsuit or other action alleging that the customer or partner’s use, operation or resale of our products infringes a third party’s intellectual property rights or misappropriates a third party’s trade secrets. We do not necessarily have the right to assume the defense of such claims in all instances, and in some cases, we may have such right, but we may decline to take advantage of it. To the extent they control the defense of any such claim, our customers and partners may select legal counsel, agree to legal fee arrangements, or pursue legal strategies that we would not select. In some instances, our customers or partners may be able to settle claims without our consent despite our obligation to contribute in part or in full to any settlement. The resolution of any such claim may require us to procure for our customers or partners the right to continue using the solution in controversy or modifying the solution so that it becomes non-infringing or no longer constitutes a misappropriation. If neither of those options is feasible, we could be required in some instances to refund, in full or in part, the license fee or the purchase price paid in connection with the solution in controversy. For all of these reasons, our potential liability with respect to any demand for indemnification, even if the claim of infringement or misappropriation ultimately fails, could be substantial and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Plaintiffs bringing intellectual property infringement and misappropriation claims often will target defendants perceived to have the deepest pockets. Our customers and certain of our business partners are often significantly larger than we are. As a result, plaintiffs may target our customers and business partners (as opposed to targeting us) for claims alleging infringement or misappropriation by our solutions. We have in the past, and expect that we will continue in the future, to receive demands for intellectual property indemnification from our customers and partners. While the liability we have incurred to date has not been material in any single case or in the aggregate, we cannot guarantee that that in the future we will not incur a material liability under our indemnification obligations. Such a liability, were it to occur, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Risks Related to Investment in Our Common Stock

Our results of operations are likely to vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable. If we fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially.

Our results of operations have historically varied significantly from period to period, and we expect that this trend will continue. As a result, you should not rely upon our past financial results for any period as indicators of future performance. Our results of operations in any given period can be influenced by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including the factors described above, as well as:

 

changes in our pricing, whether initiated by us or as a result of competition;

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changes in our product mix, which may vary from period to period and negatively affect our gross margin and overall profitability;

 

the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operation and expansion of our business;

 

changes in the growth rate of the broadband services market or changes in demand for broadband services from our customers’ subscribers, which could impact the level of demand for our products;

 

lengthy product testing or certification processes by our customers of our products, which could significantly delay our ability to recognize revenue;

 

the actual or rumored timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or customers;

 

our ability to successfully expand our business geographically;

 

insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, including our sole source suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;

 

our inability to fulfill our customers’ orders due to supply chain delays, access to key commodities or technologies or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;

 

the cost and possible outcomes of any legal actions or proceedings against us, including those described under “Part I, Item 3 – Legal Proceedings”;

 

our overall effective tax rate, including impacts caused by any changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and any new legislation or regulatory developments;

 

increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and

 

general economic conditions, both domestically and in foreign markets.

Any one of the factors above or the cumulative effect of several of the factors described above may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other results of operations. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet expectations of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits, such as those described in “Part I, Item 3 – Legal Proceedings.”

The market price of our common stock has been volatile in the past and may be volatile in the future, which could result in substantial losses for investors.

The market price of our common stock has endured significant and swift increases and declines in the time since trading in the stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market began on December 15, 2017. The market price of our common stock could be subject to similar significant fluctuations in the future. Some of the factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate include:

 

actual or anticipated changes in our earnings or fluctuations in our results of operations or in the expectations of securities analysts;

 

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

volatility in the market price and trading volume of comparable companies;

 

announcements of technological innovations, new products, strategic alliances, or significant agreements by us or by competitive vendors;

 

announcements by our customers regarding significant increases or decreases in capital expenditures;

 

departure of key personnel;

 

litigation involving us or that may be perceived as having an impact on our business;

 

changes in general economic, industry and market conditions and trends;

 

investors’ general perception of us;

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the cost and possible outcomes of any legal actions or proceedings against us, including those described under “Part I, Item 3 – Legal Proceedings”;

 

sales of large blocks of our stock; and

 

announcements regarding further industry consolidation.

As described in “Part I, Item 3 – Legal Proceedings,” we and certain of our current and former executive officers and current and former members of our board of directors have been named as defendants in several putative class action lawsuits relating to past decreases in the market price of our common stock. Because of the potential volatility of our stock price, we may become the target of additional securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.

We have broad discretion in the use of our cash reserves and may not use them effectively.

Subject to restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness, our management has broad discretion to use our cash reserves and could use our cash reserves in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business. Pending their use, we may invest our cash reserves in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

Because we do not expect to declare any dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, investors in our common stock may never receive a return on their investment.

Although we declared special dividends on five occasions prior to our initial public offering, we do not anticipate that we will declare any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future, and investors should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. Instead, we plan to retain any earnings to maintain and expand our existing operations. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment. As a result, investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial conditions, future prospects, contractual restrictions and covenants, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our credit facility contains covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends on our capital stock.

Insiders have substantial control over us, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

As of January 29, 2021, our directors, executive officers and 10% stockholders beneficially owned, in the aggregate, approximately 63.5% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders could have significant influence over the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, and over the management and affairs of our company. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company and might affect the market price of our common stock.

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares may be sold into the public market at any time, which could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the market perception that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock.

In addition to our outstanding common stock, as of January 29, 2021, there were 7,049,728 shares subject to outstanding options, 4,007,131 shares subject to outstanding restricted stock unit awards, or RSUs, 737,314 shares subject to outstanding performance-based restricted stock units, or PSUs, and an additional 10,845,634 shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans. Because we have registered most shares of common stock that may be issued under our equity incentive plans pursuant to a Registration Statement on Form S-8, any such registered shares that we issue can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the restrictions imposed on our affiliates under Rule 144.

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Moreover, holders of an aggregate of approximately 53,365,219 shares of our common stock as of January 29, 2021, have rights, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. Upon registration, such shares would be able to be freely sold in the public market.

Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.

Most members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our operations as a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our management team and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to Our Charter and Bylaws

Anti-takeover provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Our restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, and Delaware law contain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or delay attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. Our corporate governance documents include provisions:

 

establishing a classified board of directors with staggered three-year terms so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;

 

providing that directors may be removed by stockholders only for cause and only with a vote of the holders of at least 75% of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock;

 

limiting the ability of our stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings and to take action by written consent in lieu of a meeting;

 

requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals for business to be conducted at meetings of our stockholders and for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors;

 

authorizing blank check preferred stock, which could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock; and

 

limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers.

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations with us. Any provision of our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could deter potential acquirers of our company, could therefore limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock in an acquisition, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States are the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. These choice of forum provisions could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a more favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation

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or our bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. We do not intend to have this choice of forum provision apply to, and this choice of forum provision will not apply to, actions arising under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

Our restated certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. On December 19, 2018, the Delaware Court of Chancery, in Sciabacucchi v. Salzberg, et al., Civil Action No. 2017-0931-JTL (Del. Ch. Dec. 19, 2018), held that such federal forum selection provisions are invalid under Delaware law. Upon appeal, on March 18, 2020, the Delaware Supreme Court reversed the Court of Chancery’s judgment in all respects, upholding the facial validity of such federal forum selection provisions.

These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

General Risk Factors

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs, made some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increased demand on our systems and resources, and will continue to do so, particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company. Among other things, the Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We will continue to require significant resources and management oversight in order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and results of operations. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire even more employees in the future, which will increase our costs and expenses. We are required to conduct annual evaluations of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, including to identify and remediate any deficiencies in those internal controls. We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting that we are unable to remediate before the end of the same fiscal year in which the material weakness is identified, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective in any future reporting period, or if our auditors are unable to attest to management’s report on the effectiveness of our internal controls, which will be required after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would cause the price of our common stock to decline.

In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming. We have invested and will continue to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment has resulted and may continue to result in increased selling, general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

As a result of being a public company, it is more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and in the future we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors and qualified executive officers.

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We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our sales agreements are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars. Therefore, a strengthening U.S. dollar could increase the real cost of our products to our customers outside of the U.S., and alternatively a decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies could increase our product and operating costs in foreign locations. If we are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with the currency fluctuations, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Failure to comply with governmental laws and regulations could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business is subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies, including agencies responsible for monitoring and enforcing employment and labor laws, workplace safety, product safety, environmental laws, consumer protection laws, anti-bribery laws, import/export controls, foreign investment, federal securities laws and tax laws and regulations. In certain jurisdictions, these regulatory requirements may be more stringent than those in the United States. From time to time, we may receive inquiries from such governmental agencies or we may make voluntary disclosures regarding our compliance with applicable governmental regulations or requirements. Noncompliance with applicable government regulations or requirements could subject us to sanctions, mandatory product recalls, enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, fines, damages, civil and criminal penalties or injunctions. If any governmental sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and an increase in professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws such as the FCPA.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws such as the FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their employees and intermediaries from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business, securing an advantage or directing business to another individual or entity, and requires companies to maintain accurate books and records. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for the corrupt actions taken by directors, officers, employees, agents, or other strategic or local partners or representatives. We rely on non-employee third-party representatives and other intermediaries to develop international sales opportunities, and generally have less direct control over such third parties’ actions taken on our behalf. If we or our intermediaries fail to comply with the requirements of the FCPA or similar legislation, governmental authorities in the United States and elsewhere could seek to impose civil and/or criminal fines and penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition. We intend to increase our international sales and business and, as such, the cost of complying with such laws, and the potential harm from our noncompliance, are likely to increase.

Failure to comply with anti-corruption laws, such as the FCPA and the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010, or the Bribery Act, and similar laws associated with our activities outside the United States, could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences. Any violation of the FCPA, Bribery Act or similar laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions suspension, or debarment from U.S. government contracts, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and prospects. In addition, responding to any enforcement action or related investigation may result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees.

Our failure to adequately protect personal data and to comply with related laws and regulations could result in material liability.

A wide variety of provincial, state, national, foreign, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer (including across national boundaries), and other processing of personal data. These data protection and privacy-related laws and regulations are evolving and being tested in courts and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions.

Any failure by us to comply with applicable data privacy laws and regulations, or to protect such data, could result in enforcement action against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials, public censure, claims for damages by end customers and other affected persons and entities, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill, and other forms of injunctive or operations-limiting relief, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial performance, and business.

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Definitions of personal data and personal information, and requirements relating to the same under applicable laws and regulations within the European Union, the United States, Australia, and elsewhere, change frequently and are subject to new and different interpretations by courts and regulators. Because the interpretation and application of laws and other obligations relating to privacy and data protection are uncertain, it is possible that existing or future laws, regulations, and other obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data management practices. We may be required to expend significant resources to modify our products and otherwise adapt to these changes, which we may be unable to do on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and our ability to develop new products and features could be limited. These developments could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if not subject to legal challenge, the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation and inhibit adoption of our products by current and prospective customers.

Our international operations may give rise to potentially adverse tax consequences.

We are expanding our international operations and staff to better support our growth into international markets. We generally conduct our international operations through wholly owned subsidiaries and report our taxable income in various jurisdictions worldwide based upon our business operations in those jurisdictions. Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies contemplate the business flows and future growth into the international markets, and consider the functions, risks and assets of the various entities involved in the intercompany transactions. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions will depend to a significant degree on the application of the tax laws of the various jurisdictions to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements, any or all of which could result in additional tax liabilities or increases in, or in the volatility of, our effective tax rate.

The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions, which are required to be computed on an arm’s-length basis pursuant to the intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations; in addition, it is uncertain whether any such adverse effects could be mitigated by corresponding adjustments in other jurisdictions with respect to the items affected. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.

Further changes in the tax laws of foreign jurisdictions could arise, including as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting project undertaken by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or the OECD. The OECD, which represents a coalition of member countries, has issued recommendations that, in some cases, make substantial changes to numerous long-standing tax positions and principles; many of these changes have been adopted or are under active consideration by OECD members and/or other countries.

Portions of our operations are subject to a reduced tax rate under various tax holidays and rulings. We also utilize tax rulings and other agreements to obtain certainty in treatment of certain tax matters. These tax holidays and rulings expire in whole or in part from time to time and may be extended when certain conditions are met or terminated if certain conditions are not met. The impact of any changes in conditions would be the loss of certainty in treatment thus potentially impacting our effective income tax rate.

Recent changes to the U.S. tax laws impact the tax treatment of foreign earnings by, among other things, creating limits on the ability of taxpayers to claim and utilize foreign tax credits, imposing minimum effective rates of current tax on certain classes of foreign income, and imposing additional taxes in connection with specified payments to related foreign recipients, among other items. While some of these changes may be adverse on a going forward basis, others may provide benefits that may be applicable to us. Due to our existing international business activities, which we anticipate expanding, any additional guidance such as U.S Treasury regulations and administrative interpretations may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

We are also subject to the examination of our tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and other tax authorities. The final determination of tax audits and any related disputes could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals and could have an adverse effect on our financial statements for the period or periods for which the applicable final determinations are made.

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Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use, value added or similar taxes, and we could be subject to liability with respect to past or future sales, which could adversely affect our operating results.

We do not collect sales and use, value added or similar taxes in all jurisdictions in which we have sales, and we have been advised that such taxes are not applicable to our products and services in certain jurisdictions. Sales and use, value added, and similar tax laws and rates vary greatly by jurisdiction. Certain jurisdictions in which we do not collect such taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in tax assessments, penalties and interest, to us or our end-customers for the past amounts, and we may be required to collect such taxes in the future. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes from our end-customers, we could be held liable for such costs. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest, or future requirements may adversely affect our operating results.

If we needed to raise additional capital to expand our operations and invest in new products, our failure to do so on favorable terms could reduce our ability to compete and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. However, if we need to raise additional funds to expand our operations and invest in new products, we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise additional equity financing, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests, and the market price of our common stock could decline.

Our business is subject to the risks of fire, power outages, floods and other catastrophic events and to interruption by manmade problems such as terrorism.

Our corporate headquarters and the operations of our key manufacturing vendors, as well as many of our customers, are located in areas exposed to risks of natural disasters such as fires and floods. A significant natural disaster, such as a fire, flood or other catastrophic events such as a disease outbreak, could have a material adverse effect on our or their business, which could in turn materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For example, as a result of travel restrictions due to the recent outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China, certain of our inventory shipments from China may be delayed. In the event our manufacturing or logistics abilities are hindered by any of the events discussed above, shipments could be delayed, which could result in missed financial targets, such as revenue and shipment targets, for a particular quarter. Further, if a natural disaster occurs in a region from which we derive a significant portion of our revenue, customers in that region may delay or forego purchases of our products, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in our business or the business of our manufacturers, logistics providers, partners or customers or the economy as a whole. All of the aforementioned risks may be compounded if our disaster recovery plans and those of our manufacturers, logistics providers or partners prove to be inadequate. To the extent that any of the above results in delays or cancellations of customer orders, or delays in the manufacture, deployment or shipment of our products, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects would be adversely affected.

The elimination of LIBOR could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced plans to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Although timing for this phase-out, as well the impact of a replacement reference rate for our outstanding term loan, are uncertain at this time, the elimination of LIBOR could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations, or financial condition. We may incur significant expenses to amend our LIBOR-indexed loans, derivatives, and other applicable financial or contractual obligations, including our credit facilities, to a new reference rate, which may differ significantly from LIBOR. Accordingly, the use of an alternative rate could result in increased costs, including increased interest expense on our credit facilities, and increased borrowing and hedging costs in the future. Additionally, the elimination of LIBOR may adversely impact the value of and the expected return on our existing derivatives, if any. At this time, no final consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR and we are unable to predict the effect of any such alternatives on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

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If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock or the stock of other companies in our industry, the price of our stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If one or more of the industry analysts covering our business downgrade their evaluations of our stock or the stock of other companies in our industry, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover our stock, we could lose visibility in the market for our stock, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and may remain an emerging growth company until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, subject to specified conditions. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted, and intend, to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include being permitted to provide reduced disclosure regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements to hold non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation and golden parachute payments, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to our internal control over financial reporting, and not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, companies that have not filed a pending registration statement under the Securities Act, had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised, and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we will adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard, provided that we continue to be an emerging growth company. This may make comparison of our financial statements with the financial statements of another public company that is not an emerging growth company, or an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period, difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, which is December 31, 2022, or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, we have more than $700 million in market value of our stock held by non-affiliates, or we issue more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt securities over a three-year period.

We are subject to U.S. foreign investment regulations which may impose additional burdens on or may limit certain investors’ ability to purchase our common stock, potentially making our common stock less attractive to investors.

In October 2018, the U.S. Department of Treasury announced a pilot program to implement part of the Foreign Investment Risk Review Modernization Act, or FIRRMA, effective November 10, 2018. The pilot program expands the jurisdiction of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, or CFIUS, to include certain direct or indirect foreign investments in a defined category of U.S. companies, including companies involved in manufacturing communications equipment. Among other things, FIRRMA empowers CFIUS to require certain foreign investors to make mandatory filings and permits CFIUS to charge filing fees related to such filings. Such filings are subject to review by CFIUS. Any such restrictions on the ability to purchase shares of our common stock that have the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Facilities

Our corporate headquarters is located in Andover, Massachusetts and consists of approximately 122,000 square feet of space. We own the property constituting our corporate headquarters, and prior to July 1, 2020, we were subject to an $8.0 million mortgage loan. The annual interest rate on the loan was 3.5%, and the loan was repayable in 60 monthly installments of principal and interest based on a 20-year amortization schedule. The remaining amount of unpaid principal under the loan of $6.5 million was paid on its maturity date of July 1, 2020. The loan terms included annual affirmative, negative and financial covenants, including a requirement that we maintain a minimum debt service ratio. We were in compliance with all annual covenants of the mortgage loan as of the last measurement date of December 31, 2019.

We lease additional facilities in Lawrence, Massachusetts and Limerick, Ireland that we use for manufacturing, testing, logistics, and customer support, facilities in Guangzhou, China, that we use for manufacturing, testing, logistics, research and development and technical support, facilities in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia that we use for logistics, customer support and research and development and facilities in Valencia, Spain, Pak Shek Kok, Hong Kong, and Shenzhen and Hefei, China that we use primarily for research and development.

We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our current needs. We anticipate expanding our facilities as we add employees and enter new geographic markets. We believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available on acceptable terms as needed to accommodate future growth.

From time to time, we are a party to various litigation matters and subject to claims that arise in the ordinary course of business including, for example, patent infringement lawsuits by non-practicing entities. In addition, third parties may from time to time assert claims against us in the form of letters and other communications.

On May 29, 2019, John Shen filed a putative shareholder class action complaint in the Massachusetts Superior Court of Essex County, John Shen v. Casa Systems, Inc, et al., Civil Action No. 1977CV00787, against us; certain of our current and former executive officers and directors; Summit Partners, our largest investor; and the underwriters from our December 15, 2017, initial public offering, or IPO. On July 3, 2019, Mirza R. Baig filed a similar putative shareholder class action complaint in the Massachusetts Superior Court of Essex County, Mirza R. Baig v. Casa Systems, Inc., Civil Action No. 1977CV00961, against the same defendants. Pursuant to plaintiffs’ motion filed on July 26, 2019, and accepted September 3, 2019, the two matters were consolidated and transferred to the Business Litigation Session of the Massachusetts Superior Court, Suffolk County, John Shen v. Casa Systems, Inc, et al., Civil Action No. 19-CV-03203-BLS2 and Mirza R. Baig v. Casa Systems, Inc., Civil Action No. 19-CV-03204-BLS2. The complaints purported to be brought on behalf of all purchasers of our common stock in and/or traceable to the IPO. The complaints generally alleged that (i) each of the defendants violated Section 11 and/or Section 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, because documents related to the IPO, including our registration statement and prospectus were materially misleading by containing untrue statements of material fact and/or omitting to state material facts necessary to make such statements not misleading and (ii) the individual defendants and Summit Partners acted as controlling persons within the meaning and in violation of Section 15 of the Securities Act. On November 12, 2019, the plaintiffs filed an amended shareholder class action complaint, purportedly on behalf of all purchasers of our common stock in and/or traceable to the IPO, which contained substantially similar allegations and asserted the same claims as the two initial complaints, described above. Plaintiffs sought, among other things compensatory damages, costs and expenses, including counsel and expert fees, rescission or a rescissory measure of damages, and equitable and injunctive relief. On January 14, 2020, the defendants filed motions to dismiss the amended complaint with prejudice. On January 11, 2021, the court granted the motions to dismiss.

On August 9, 2019, Donald Hook filed a putative shareholder class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of New York, Donald Hook, et al., v. Casa Systems, Inc. et al., Index No. 654548/2019, against the same defendants named in the Shen and Baig matters. The complaint purports to be brought on behalf of all purchasers of our common stock in and/or traceable to our IPO and generally alleges that (i) each of the defendants violated Section 11 and/or Section 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act because documents related to our IPO including our registration statement and prospectus were materially misleading by containing untrue statements of material fact and/or omitting to state material facts necessary to make such statements not misleading and (ii) the individual defendants and Summit Partners acted as controlling persons within the meaning and in violation of Section 15 of the Securities Act. On November 22, 2019, the plaintiff filed an

46


amended complaint, which contains substantially similar allegations as the initial complaint, described above, and asserts claims for violations of Sections 11 and 15 of the Securities Act. Plaintiff seeks, among other things, compensatory damages, costs and expenses, including counsel and expert fees, rescission or a rescissory measure of damages, disgorgement, and equitable and injunctive relief. On January 21, 2020, the defendants filed motions to dismiss the amended complaint, which remains pending.

On August 13, 2019, Panther Partners, Inc. filed a putative shareholder class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, New York County, Panther Partners, Inc., et al., v. Jerry Guo et al., Index No 654585/2019, against us, certain of our current and former executive officers and directors, and the underwriters from our April 30, 2018 follow-on offering of common stock, which we refer to as our “Follow-on Offering.” The complaint purports to be brought on behalf of all purchasers of our common stock in our Follow-on Offering and generally alleges that (i) each of the defendants, other than Abraham Pucheril, violated Section 11 of the Securities Act, and each of the defendants violated Section 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act, because documents related to our Follow-on Offering, including our registration statement and prospectus, were materially misleading by containing untrue statements of material fact and/or omitting to state material facts necessary to make such statements not misleading and (ii) the individual defendants acted as controlling persons within the meaning and in violation of Section 15 of the Securities Act. On November 22, 2019, the plaintiff filed an amended complaint, which contains substantially similar allegations and asserts the same claims as the initial complaint, described above. Plaintiff seeks, among other things, compensatory damages, costs and expenses, including counsel and expert fees, rescission or a rescissory measure of damages, and equitable and injunctive relief. On January 21, 2020, the defendants served motions to dismiss the amended complaint, which remain pending.

We are generally obligated to indemnify our officers, directors, and the IPO and Follow-on Offering underwriters in each of the matters described above.

No amounts have been accrued for any of the putative class action lawsuits referenced above in the year ended December 31, 2020, as we do not believe the likelihood of a material loss is probable. Although the ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, the resolution of any of these matters could have a material impact on our results of operations in the period in which such matter is resolved.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “CASA”. Trading of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market commenced on December 15, 2017 in connection with our initial public offering, or IPO. Prior to that time, there was no established public trading market for our common stock.

Holders of Record

As of January 29, 2021, there were 15 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are not able to estimate the number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividend Policy

Although we declared special dividends on five occasions prior to our initial public offering, we do not anticipate that we will declare any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial conditions, future prospects, contractual restrictions and covenants, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our credit facility contains covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends on our capital stock.

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Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to liabilities under that section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

The following graph compares the cumulative total return to stockholders for our common shares for the period from December 15, 2017 (the date our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market) through December 31, 2020 with the Nasdaq Composite Index. The comparison assumes an investment of $100 is made on December 15, 2017 in our common shares and in each of the indices and in the case of the indices it also assumes reinvestment of all dividends. The performance shown is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

None.

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Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

The following table sets forth information with respect to repurchases of shares of our common stock during the three-month period ended December 31, 2020.

 

Period

 

Total Number of

Shares Purchased

 

 

Average

Price Paid

per Share

 

 

Total Number of

Shares Purchased

as Part of Publicly

Announced Plans

or Programs

 

 

Approximate Dollar

Value of Shares that

May Yet Be Purchased

Under the Plans

or Programs (1)

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

(In thousands)

 

October 1 - October 31, 2020

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

70,208

 

November 1 - November 30, 2020

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

70,208

 

December 1 - December 31, 2020

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

70,208

 

(1)

On February 21, 2019, we announced that our board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to $75.0 million of our common stock under a stock repurchase program. From inception through December 31, 2020, we repurchased approximately 1.7 million shares under the program for approximately $4.8 million before commissions. The stock repurchase program has no expiration date, does not require us to purchase a minimum number of shares, and may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time without prior notice.

 

Use of Proceeds

 

On December 19, 2017, we closed our initial public offering of common stock under a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-221658) that was declared effective by the SEC on December 14, 2017. The net offering proceeds to us from the offering, after deducting underwriting discounts of $6.3 million and offering expenses payable by us totaling $4.1 million, were approximately $79.3 million. No offering discounts, commissions or expenses were paid directly or indirectly to any of our directors or officers (or their associates) or persons owning 10.0% or more of any class of our equity securities or to any other affiliates. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on December 15, 2017, pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. As of December 31, 2020, we had not used any of the net offering proceeds and we have invested the proceeds into an investment portfolio with the primary objective of preserving principal and providing liquidity without significantly increasing risk.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

Not Applicable.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors.” For discussion comparing the period ended December 31, 2019 to December 31, 2018, please refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020.

Overview

Our solutions are conceived, designed and built to enable our CSP customers to offer high bandwidth data services to their subscribers, and help them as they transform their networks to meet the growing demand for bandwidth and the introduction of new services. We offer physical, virtual and cloud-native 5G infrastructure and customer premise networking equipment for public and private high-speed data and multi-service communications networks. Our core and edge convergence technology enables CSPs and enterprises to cost-effectively and dynamically increase network speed, add bandwidth capacity and new services, reduce network complexity, and reduce operating and capital expenditures.

We offer scalable solutions that can meet the evolving bandwidth needs of our customers and their subscribers. Our first installation in a service provider’s network frequently involves deploying our broadband products in only a portion of the provider’s network and, for our cable products, with only a fraction of the capacity of our products enabled at the time of initial installation. Over time, our customers have generally expanded the use of our solutions to other areas of their networks to increase network capacity. Capacity expansions are accomplished either by deploying additional systems, line cards, or the sale of additional channels through the use of software. Sales of software-based capacity expansions generate higher gross margins than hardware-based deployments.

Our solutions are commercially deployed in over 70 countries by more than 475 customers, including regional service providers as well as some of the world’s largest Tier 1 CSPs, serving millions of subscribers.

COVID-19 Pandemic

The emergence of the coronavirus disease in 2019, or COVID-19, around the world, and particularly in the United States and China, and the accompanying responses of governments and businesses to the pandemic present various risks to us, not all of which we are able to fully evaluate or even foresee at the current time. While the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly adversely affect our financial results, business operations or liquidity in the year ended December 31, 2020, economic and health conditions in the United States and across most of the globe changed rapidly during the year and are continuing to change after the end of the year. Globally to date, all aspects of our business remain fully operational, and our work from home contingency plans have been implemented and are operating successfully. The pandemic has resulted in increased demand for certain of our products and resulting order volumes have created additional pressure on our supply chain. To date, while the increased demand has not resulted in any material delays to our production cycle, we continue to work with our supply chain and contract manufacturers in an effort to ensure continued availability of all anticipated inventory requirements. However, we cannot at this time predict whether, or to what extent, our efforts will be successful. Additionally, we saw decreases in certain operating expenses, such as travel and trade show expense, during the year ended December 31, 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic that we cannot ensure will be maintained. We intend to continue to monitor our business very closely for any effects of COVID-19 for as long as necessary on an ongoing basis.

Due to the above circumstances and as described generally in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in future years. Management cannot predict the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our sales channels, supply chain, manufacturing and distribution, or on economic conditions generally, including the effects on our current and potential customers, who may temporarily accelerate or curtail spending on investments in current and/or new technologies, delay new equipment evaluations and trials, and possibly delay payments based on liquidity concerns, all of which could have a material impact on our business in the future. Similarly, our supply chain and our contract manufacturers could be affected, which could cause disruptions to our ability to meet customer demand. Although we have not been materially adversely impacted to date, we cannot predict the extent to which this may impact our future results of operations. If COVID-19 were to have such effects in the future, there would likely be a material adverse impact on our financial results, liquidity and capital resource needs. Thus, the ultimate extent of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company is highly uncertain and dependent upon future developments, and such effects could exist for an extended period of time even after the pandemic might end.

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Our Business Model

We derive revenue from sales of our products and services. Prior to the year ended December 31, 2020, the majority of our product revenue came from sales of our broadband products, particularly our C100G CCAP solution to cable operators worldwide. In the year ended December 31, 2020, sales of our wireless and fixed telco products to mobile network operators and diversified CSPs globally comprised a majority of our revenue. We generate service revenue primarily from sales of maintenance and support services, which end customers typically purchase in conjunction with our products, and, to a lesser extent, from sales of professional services and extended warranty services.

We offer end-to-end physical, virtual and cloud-native communications network infrastructure and customer premise network solutions that enable our customers to provide fixed and wireless ultra-broadband services to consumers and enterprises.

We market and sell our products and services through our direct global sales force, supported by sales agents, and through resellers. A majority of our revenue is derived from direct sales, which generate higher gross margins than sales made through resellers. Our sales organization includes systems engineers with deep technical expertise that provide pre-sales technical support. These systems engineers also assist with post-sales support. Our resellers receive an order from an end customer prior to placing an order with us, and we confirm the identification of or are aware of the end customer prior to accepting such orders. We use sales agents to assist our direct global sales force in the sales process with certain customers primarily located in Latin America and Asia-Pacific. If a sales agent is engaged in the sales process, we receive the order directly from and sell the products and services directly to the end customer, and we pay a commission to the sales agent, calculated as a percentage of the related customer payment.

Each of our sales teams is responsible for a geographic territory and/or has responsibility for a number of major direct end-customer accounts. We have a diverse, global customer base and our revenue by geographic region fluctuates from period to period based on the timing of customer projects. The percentages of our revenue derived from customers in each geographic region were as follows:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Revenue by geographic region: